Enhancing the interpretation of statistical P values in toxicology studies: implementation of linear mixed models (LMMs) and standardized effect sizes (SESs)

Kerstin Schmidt*, Jörg Schmidtke, Christian Kohl, Ralf Wilhelm, Joachim Schiemann, Hilko van der Voet, Pablo Steinberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper, we compare the traditional ANOVA approach to analysing data from 90-day toxicity studies with a more modern LMM approach, and we investigate the use of standardized effect sizes. The LMM approach is used to analyse weight or feed consumption data. When compared to the week-by-week ANOVA with multiple test results per week, this approach results in only one statement on differences in weight development between groups. Standardized effect sizes are calculated for the endpoints: weight, relative organ weights, haematology and clinical biochemistry. The endpoints are standardized, allowing different endpoints of the same study to be compared and providing an overall picture of group differences at a glance. Furthermore, in terms of standardized effect sizes, statistical significance and biological relevance are displayed simultaneously in a graph.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)731-751
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Volume90
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • 90-day toxicity study
  • ANOVA
  • Linear mixed models
  • P values
  • Repeated measurements
  • Standardized effect sizes

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