Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process

Arnoud de Wilt, Koen van Gijn, Tom Verhoek, Amber Vergnes, Mirit Hoek, Huub Rijnaarts, Alette Langenhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO3B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38% of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO3B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85%, except for metoprolol (60%). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95% removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O3/g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17% TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO3B reactors. The BO3B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10%. Overall, the BO3B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-105
JournalWater Research
Volume138
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018

Fingerprint

Drug products
Ozone
drug
ozone
Water
Ozonization
Effluents
water
effluent
cost
Caffeine
removal
Costs
Scavenging
Wastewater treatment
Biological materials
targeting
Toxicity
Wastewater
toxicity

Keywords

  • Biodegradation
  • Combined treatment
  • Ozonation
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Toxicity
  • Wastewater

Cite this

de Wilt, Arnoud ; van Gijn, Koen ; Verhoek, Tom ; Vergnes, Amber ; Hoek, Mirit ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Langenhoff, Alette. / Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process. In: Water Research. 2018 ; Vol. 138. pp. 97-105.
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abstract = "Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO3B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38{\%} of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO3B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85{\%}, except for metoprolol (60{\%}). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95{\%} removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O3/g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17{\%} TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO3B reactors. The BO3B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10{\%}. Overall, the BO3B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents.",
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Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process. / de Wilt, Arnoud; van Gijn, Koen; Verhoek, Tom; Vergnes, Amber; Hoek, Mirit; Rijnaarts, Huub; Langenhoff, Alette.

In: Water Research, Vol. 138, 01.07.2018, p. 97-105.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process

AU - de Wilt, Arnoud

AU - van Gijn, Koen

AU - Verhoek, Tom

AU - Vergnes, Amber

AU - Hoek, Mirit

AU - Rijnaarts, Huub

AU - Langenhoff, Alette

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO3B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38% of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO3B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85%, except for metoprolol (60%). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95% removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O3/g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17% TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO3B reactors. The BO3B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10%. Overall, the BO3B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents.

AB - Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO3B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38% of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO3B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85%, except for metoprolol (60%). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95% removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O3/g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17% TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO3B reactors. The BO3B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10%. Overall, the BO3B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents.

KW - Biodegradation

KW - Combined treatment

KW - Ozonation

KW - Pharmaceuticals

KW - Toxicity

KW - Wastewater

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2018.03.028

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2018.03.028

M3 - Article

VL - 138

SP - 97

EP - 105

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

ER -