The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide levels (ambient, 10%). Additional experiments were conducted on F occidentalis adult females with lower carbon dioxide levels (ambient, 2%, 4%, 6%) applied in combination with p-cymene. Combined applications of p-cymene and carbon dioxide were found to increase significantly the fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against both adult female and larval thrips, but not thrips eggs. An increase in exposure time also led to an increase in adult and larval mortalities in both the p-cymene alone and combined treatments. These results indicate that by combining applications of the essential oil component, p-cymene, with increased carbon dioxide, it may be possible to achieve toxicity levels similar to those of standard chemical fumigants. (C) 2001 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Controlled atmosphere
- Frankliniella occidentalis
- Essential oils
Janmaat, A. F., de Kogel, W. J., & Woltering, E. J. (2002). Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Pest Management Science, 58(2), 167-173. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.432