Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh

D.S. Alam, J.M.A. van Raaij, J.G.A.J. Hautvast, M. Yunus, G.J. Fuchs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To assess the relationship of energy stress during pregnancy and lactation to maternal body stores in marginally nourished rural Bangladeshi women. Subjects and methods: Two-hundred and fifty-two women were followed from 5 - 7 months of pregnancy until 6 months postpartum. Energy intake was estimated during pregnancy and at 1, 3 and 6 month(s) postpartum using 24 h dietary recall. Body weight was measured on enrollment, another once or twice during pregnancy, and at 1, 3 and 6 month(s) postpartum. The weekly rates of pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight changes were determined. Weight and length of the infants were measured at birth and at approximately 1, 3 and 6 month(s). Results: Maternal energy intake at 5 - 7 months of gestation was 1464 +/- 416 kcal/day (mean s.d.). Women gained a mean of 200 g/week or a total of 4 kg during the second half of pregnancy. An analysis of maternal weight showed no indication of accrual of fat stores during pregnancy. Dietary energy during lactation exceeded the intake during pregnancy by 248 +/- 354 kcal/day. Mothers lost an estimated average of I kg of weight during the first 6 months of lactation. The mean ( s.d.) birth weight was 2.55 +/- 0.38 kg, and the prevalence of low birth weight (<2500 g) was 48%. Infants exhibited some catch-up growth only during the first 3 months but overall growth during the first 6 months did not change from their relative status at birth when compared with NCHS reference. Conclusions: These rural Bangladeshi women failed to gain sufficient weight during the last half of pregnancy to maintain body weight during lactation when the energy demand is high. Poor growth of their primarily breastfed infants raises concern about the adequacy of lactation in this community.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-156
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume57
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Keywords

  • intrauterine growth-retardation
  • birth-weight
  • patterns
  • requirements
  • women
  • determinants
  • mothers
  • balance
  • milk

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