Projects per year
Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2015 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). Some figures in the time series 1990-2014 were revised. The method calculates the ammonia emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammonia emissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2015 were 117.6 million kg, which was almost equal to the emission in 2014 (117.3 million kg). Nitrogen excretion increased, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd, but did not result in a higher ammonia emission because of a larger share of low emission housing, more manure export outside agriculture and a larger share of manure injection in the total manure application. N2O emissions increased from 20.0 million kg in 2014 to 20.6 million kg in 2015. NO emission increased from 17.8 to 18.7 million kg. Methane emissions increased from 503 to 520 million kg due to higher numbers of dairy cattle. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.4 to 6.5 million kg PM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also decreased over the same period, but less strongly (35% and 40% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with liquid manure towards solid manure systems. Methane emissions reduced by 14% between 1990 and 2015 caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.