The diseases caused by aphid-borne poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) and thrips-borne tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) are emerging threats to the production of economically important vegetable and fruit crops in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. To date, at least 13 different polerovirus species have been characterized. In Asia, the reported poleroviruses include Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) and Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV). Tospoviruses are even more diverse in Asia, infecting a broad range of crops. About 70% of the globally described tospovirus species have been reported causing significant yield losses in several countries in South and Southeast Asia. The development and implementation of effective management strategies to reduce the damage due to these insect-transmitted viruses is a major challenge to the vegetable industry. Host plant resistance breeding against polerovirus and tospovirus is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to address the long-term management of these viruses. The identification and characterization of new polerovirus and tospovirus species in the Philippines and Thailand are discussed and efforts to identify sources of resistance to these viruses and breeding for resistance are presented.