Emergency FMD Serotype O Vaccines Protect Cattle against Heterologous Challenge with a Variant Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 Lineage

Nagendrakumar B. Singanallur, A. Dekker, P.L. Eble, F. Kluitenberg-van Hemert, K. Weerdmeester, J.J. Horsington, Wilna Vosloo

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Abstract

Vaccination is one of the best approaches to control and eradicate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). To achieve this goal, vaccines with inactivated FMD virus antigen in suitable adjuvants are being used in addition to other control measures. However, only a limited number of vaccine strains are commercially available, which often have a restricted spectrum of activity against the different FMD virus strains in circulation. As a result, when new strains emerge, it is important to measure the efficacy of the current vaccine strains against these new variants. This is important for countries where FMD is endemic but also for countries that hold an FMD vaccine bank, to ensure they are prepared for emergency vaccination. The emergence and spread of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage of viruses posed a serious threat to countries with OIE-endorsed FMD control plans who had not reported FMD for many years. In vitro vaccine-matching results showed a poor match (r1-value < 0.3) with the more widely used vaccine strain O1 Manisa and less protection in a challenge test. This paper describes the use of the O3039 vaccine strain as an alternative, either alone or in combination with the O1 Manisa vaccine strain with virulent challenge by a O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d sub-lineage virus from Algeria (O/ALG/3/2014). The experiment included challenge at 7 days post-vaccination (to study protection and emergency use) and 21 days post-vaccination (as in standard potency studies). The results indicated that the O3039 vaccine strain alone, as well as the combination with O1 Manisa, is effective against this strain of the O/ME-SA/Ind/2001d lineage, offering protection from clinical disease even after 7 days post-vaccination with a reduction in viraemia and virus excretion.
Original languageEnglish
JournalVaccines
Volume2021
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sep 2021

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