The catabolism of 4-hydroxyacetophenone in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB is known to proceed through the intermediate formation of hydroquinone. Here we provide evidence that hydroquinone is further degraded through 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and maleylacetate to -ketoadipate. The P. fluorescens ACB genes involved in 4-hydroxyacetophenone utilization were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis of an 15-kb DNA fragment showed the presence of fourteen open reading frames containing a gene cluster (hapCDEFGHIBA) of which at least four encoded enzymes are involved in 4-hydroxyacetophenone degradation: 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase (hapA), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate hydrolase (hapB), 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (hapE) and maleylacetate reductase (hapF). In between hapF and hapB, three genes encoding a putative intradiol dioxygenase (hapG), a protein of the yci1 family (hapH) and a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (hapI) were found. Downstream of the hap genes, five open reading frames are situated encoding three putative regulatory proteins (orf10, orf12 and orf13) and two proteins possibly involved in a membrane efflux pump (orf11 and orf14). Upstream of hapE, two genes (hapC and hapD) were present that showed weak similarity with several iron (II)-dependent extradiol dioxygenases. Based on these findings and additional biochemical evidence it is proposed that the hapC and hapD gene products are involved in the ring-cleavage of hydroquinone.
- meta-cleavage pathway
- cleaving catecholic dioxygenase
- baeyer-villiger monooxygenase
- candida-parapsilosis cbs604
- plasmid-encoded degradation
- sp strain b13
- hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase