We studied the whipping of artificial creams composed of a blend of sunflower oil and hydrogenated palm fat stabilized by protein or a mixture or protein and low molecular weight (lmw) surfactant. It was found that an increased whipping speed, decreased protein concentration, and the addition of lmw surfactant leads to shorter whipping times. Further, shorter whipping times were observed for WPI-stabilized cream compared to cream stabilized by sodium caseinate. In all cases, the decrease in whipping time was due to a decrease in the length of the second stage of whipping, the stage characterized by the adhesion of fat droplets to the air bubble surface. The decrease in whipping time could be accounted for by considering the influence of the experimental variables on the fraction of bubble surface area at which fat droplet spreading is possible. The same changes in parameters that promote droplet spreading at the air/water interface cause a decrease in the whipping time of our model creams. Correlating the whipping time of cream with the spreading behavior of fat droplets at the air/water interface represents a new insight into the mechanisms involved in the whipping of cream.
|Journal||Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|
- in-water emulsions
- air/water interface
- dairy emulsions
- oil droplets