Effort to improve coupled in situ chemical oxidation with bioremediation: a review of optimization strategies

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Purpose - In order to provide highly effective yet relatively inexpensive strategies for the remediation of recalcitrant organic contaminants, research has focused on in situ treatment technologies. Recent investigation has shown that coupling two common treatments-in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and in situ bioremediation-is not only feasible but in many cases provides more efficient and extensive cleanup of contaminated subsurfaces. However, the combination of aggressive chemical oxidants with delicate microbial activity requires a thorough understanding of the impact of each step on soil geochemistry, biota, and contaminant dynamics. In an attempt to optimize coupled chemical and biological remediation, investigations have focused on elucidating parameters that are necessary to successful treatment. In the case of ISCO, the impacts of chemical oxidant type and quantity on bacterial populations and contaminant biodegradability have been considered. Similarly, biostimulation, that is, the adjustment of redox conditions and amendment with electron donors, acceptors, and nutrients, and bioaugmentation have been used to expedite the regeneration of biodegradation following oxidation. The purpose of this review is to integrate recent results on coupled ISCO and bioremediation with the goal of identifying parameters necessary to an optimized biphasic treatment and areas that require additional focus. Conclusions and recommendations - Although a biphasic treatment consisting of ISCO and bioremediation is a feasible in situ remediation technology, a thorough understanding of the impact of chemical oxidation on subsequent microbial activity is required. Such an understanding is essential as coupled chemical and biological remediation technologies are further optimized
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-140
JournalJournal of Soils and Sediments
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons
  • catalyzed hydrogen-peroxide
  • contaminated soil
  • fentons reagent
  • permanganate oxidation
  • reductive dechlorination
  • potassium-permanganate
  • field demonstration
  • porous-media
  • source-area


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