In nature, light availability for photosynthesis can undergo massive changes on a very short timescale. Photosynthesis in such dynamic light environments requires that plants can respond swiftly. Expanding our knowledge of the rapid responses that underlie dynamic photosynthesis is an important endeavor: It provides insights into nature's design of a highly dynamic energy conversion system and hereby can open up new strategies for improving photosynthesis in the field. The present review focuses on three processes that have previously been identified as promising engineering targets for enhancing crop yield by accelerating dynamic photosynthesis, all three of them involving or being linked to processes in the chloroplast, i.e. relaxation of non-photochemical quenching, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzyme activation/deactivation and dynamics of stomatal conductance. We dissect these three processes on the functional and molecular level to reveal gaps in our understanding and critically discuss current strategies to improve photosynthesis in the field.