Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with glucose and cellobiose as acceptor, respectively. Use of alpha-D-glucosyl 1-fluoride as donor increased product yields to 98% for CtCBP and 68% for CtCDP. CtCBP showed broad acceptor specificity forming beta-glucosyl disaccharides with beta-(1-->4)- regioselectivity from five monosaccharides as well as branched beta-glucosyl trisaccharides with beta-(1-->4)-regioselectivity from three (1-->6)-linked disaccharides. CtCDP showed strict beta-(1-->4)-regioselectivity and catalysed linear chain extension of the three beta-linked glucosyl disaccharides, cellobiose, sophorose, and laminaribiose, whereas 12 tested monosaccharides were not acceptors. Structure analysis by NMR and ESI-MS confirmed two beta-glucosyl oligosaccharide product series to represent novel compounds, i.e. beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1-->2)-D-gluco pyranose, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1-->3)-D-glucop yranose (n = 1-7). Multiple sequence alignment together with a modelled CtCBP structure, obtained using the crystal structure of Cellvibrio gilvus CBP in complex with glucose as a template, indicated differences in the subsite +1 region that elicit the distinct acceptor specificities of CtCBP and CtCDP. Thus Glu636 of CtCBP recognized the Cl hydroxyl of beta-glucose at subsite +1, while in CtCDP the presence of Ala800 conferred more space, which allowed accommodation of Cl substituted disaccharide acceptors at the corresponding subsites +1 and +2. Furthermore, CtCBP has a short Glu496-Thr500 loop that permitted the C6 hydroxyl of glucose at subsite +1 to be exposed to solvent, whereas the corresponding longer loop Thr637-Lys648 in CtCDP blocks binding of C6-linked disaccharides as acceptors at subsite +1. High yields in chemoenzymatic synthesis, a novel regioselectivity, and novel oligosaccharides including products of CtCDP catalysed oligosaccharide oligomerisation using alpha-D-glucosyl 1-fluoride, all together contribute to the formation of an excellent basis for rational engineering of CBP and CDP to produce desired oligosaccharides.
- chitobiose phosphorylase
- maltose phosphorylase