Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

T.C.M. Brock*, D.A. Bas, J.D.M. Belgers, L. Bibbe, M.C. Boerwinkel, S.J.H. Crum, N.J. Diepens, M.H.S. Kraak, J.A. Vonk, I. Roessink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment-related responses observed in the microcosms are in accordance with the results of the 28-d laboratory toxicity tests. These tests showed that the insect C. riparius and the crustacean H. azteca were approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the oligochaete L. variegatus. In our laboratory tests, using field-collected sediment, the lowest 28-d EC10 (0.49 μg a.s./g OC) was observed for C. riparius (endpoint survival), while for the standard OECD test with this species, using artificial sediment, a NOEC of 2.35 μg a.s./g OC (endpoint emergence) is reported. In this particular case, the sediment tier-1 effect assessment using the chronic EC10 (field-collected sediment) or chronic NOEC (artificial sediment) of C. riparius and an assessment factor of 10, seems to be protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the sediment-spiked microcosms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-475
JournalAquatic Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Benzoylurea insecticide
  • Chironomus riparius
  • Hyalella azteca
  • Lumbriculus variegatus
  • Sediment ecotoxicology
  • Semi-field experiment


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