Effects of salt on the expansion of starchy snacks: a multiscale analysis

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We investigate the effect of salt on the expansion of starchy snacks during frying by means of a multiscale simulation model. This model has been developed earlier for starchy snacks without salt. The simulation results are analysed by means of the supplemented state diagram. We have found that the optimal expansion for salty snacks occurs under the same conditions as for snacks without salt. This occurs at the moisture content where the 4 bar boiling line intersects the critical isoviscosity line of 1 MPa s. Salt is shown to influence both the boiling line and the critical isoviscosity line, via a change of the glass transition. The optimal moisture content for salty snacks is lower than that of unsalted snacks. We view our findings as important for reformulations of starchy snacks with lower salt levels. Furthermore, the presented tools of the multiscale simulations and supplemented state diagram can generally be used for reformulation problems in structured foods.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3076-3082
JournalFood & Function
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • glass-transition
  • sodium-chloride
  • aqueous-solutions
  • mass-transfer
  • sucrose
  • extrusion
  • potato
  • water
  • trehalose
  • mixtures


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