Effects of Salmonella on spatial-temporal processes of jejunal development in chickens

D.J. Schokker, M.A. Smits, A.J.W. Hoekman, H.K. Parmentier, J.M.J. Rebel

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14 Citations (Scopus)


To study effects of Salmonella enteritidis on morphological and functional changes in chicken jejunal development, we analysed gene expression profiles at seven points post-infection in 1-21 day-old broiler chickens. Nine clusters with different gene expression patterns were identified, and the genes in each cluster were further analyzed by a functional annotation clustering method (DAVID). Functional and morphological developmental processes dominated in all the nine clusters. Salmonella infection caused delays in several intestinal-morphological processes, whereas functional metabolic processes occurred in a similar spatial-temporal frame compared to normal jejunum development. A clear difference between normal developing- and Salmonella disturbed jejunum was the higher expression of genes involved in cell turn-over at early stages in the infected jejunum. Surprisingly, we found no clustered immune related processes in the infected birds. To compare the immunological processes between control and Salmonella infected chickens, the gene expression data was superimposed on known immunological KEGG pathways. Furthermore an in-depth analysis on the immune gene level was performed. As expected, we did find immunological processes in the Salmonella infected jejunum. Several of these processes could be verified by immunohistochemistry measurements of different immunological cell types. However, the well-ordered spatial-temporal development of the immune system, as observed in control non-infected animals, was completely abolished in the infected animals. Several immunological processes started much earlier in time, whereas other processes are disorganised. These data indicate that normal morphological and immunological development of jejunum is changed dramatically by a disturbance due to Salmonella infection. Due to the disturbance, the well-organized spatial-temporal development of morphological processes are delayed, those of the immunological development are scattered, whereas metabolic functional processes are almost not affected. This demonstrates the flexibility of developmental processes in the broiler chicken intestine. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1090-1100
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • coagulation factor-xiii
  • regulatory t-cells
  • gene-expression
  • immune-responses
  • broiler-chickens
  • small-intestine
  • gastrointestinal-tract
  • kyoto encyclopedia
  • barrier function
  • receptor system


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