Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation

R. Ruijschop, A.E.M. Boelrijk, J.A. de Ru, C. de Graaf, M. Westerterp-Plantenga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over full factorial design, twenty-seven healthy subjects (fourteen males and thirteen females; aged 16-65 years; BMI 19-37 kg/m(2) were administered aroma profiles by a computer-controlled stimulator based on air dilution olfactometry. Profile A consisted of a profile that is obtained during consumption of normal beverages. Profile B is normally observed during consumption of (soft) solids. The two profiles were produced with strawberry aroma and administered in a retro-nasal fashion, while the subjects consumed a sweetened milk drink. Before, during and after the sensory stimulation, appetite profile measurements were performed. Subjects felt significantly more satiated if they were aroma stimulated with profile B (P = 0.04). After stimulation with sweet strawberry aroma, there was a significant decrease in desire to eat sweet products (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, perceived satiation was increased by altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1140-1148
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • ionization-mass-spectrometry
  • flavor release
  • sensory perception
  • swallowing process
  • food-intake
  • real-time
  • satiety
  • humans
  • taste
  • stimulation

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