Effects of prefermented cereals or the end products of fermentation on growth and metabolism of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and on intestinal health of restrictedly fed weanling pigs

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Abstract

To unravel the underlying mechanisms that explain the positive effects of prefermented cereals on in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) architecture and function, an in vitro experiment using a human small intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2) was performed. A range of dilutions (0% to 10%) of the supernatants of three liquid experimental diets, as well as Na-lactate were used in an in vitro experiment to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and mucosal integrity using Caco-2. The experimental diets contained, in addition to a protein rich basal diet (60%), (1) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat (ratio 3 : 1) or (2) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% prefermented barley and wheat or (3) C with the addition of the fermentation end-products (organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented diet (FP). For F, the mixture of barley and wheat was fermented at 35°C for 48 h. Parallel to the in vitro experiment, 18 groups of eight weanling pigs were assigned to one of the experimental diets during a 14-day in vivo experiment. Each group was fed restrictively. The results of the in vitro experiment showed that the lowest dose of both F- and FP-supernatants had no clear effects on the cell proliferation, but incubation with 5% and 10% of the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the cell numbers at day 19. DNA, RNA, protein and glycoprotein synthesis in differentiated Caco-2 cells were stimulated by incubation with the lower concentrations (0.5% to 2.5%) of F- and FP-supernatants whereas the higher concentrations (5% and 10%) had no effect. Both the F- and FP-supernatants decreased the specific sucrase–isomaltase activity in a dose-dependent manner, but the effects on the specific aminopeptidase activities were less clear. Mucosal integrity initially decreased after incubation with the highest F- and FP-supernatants and started to recover between 24 and 48 h. The results of the in vivo experiment showed no dietary effects (P > 0.1) on GI morphology and brush-border enzyme activities at day 5 or at day 14. Time related changes in GI characteristics followed a normal pattern. In conclusion, the supernatants of diets containing either prefermented cereals or their fermentation end-products clearly modulate cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and mucosal integrity in an in vitro model, although these effects were not observed in the in vivo characteristics measured in weanling pigs
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-51
JournalAnimal
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • liquid compound diets
  • 6-day storage period
  • chain fatty-acids
  • gastrointestinal ecology
  • brush-border
  • performance
  • feed
  • exposure
  • piglets
  • coproducts

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