Effects of formulation and baking conditions on neo-formed contaminants in model cookies

M. Courel*, L. Ait-Ameur, E. Capuano, V. Fogliano, F.J. Morales, F. Courtois, I. Birlouez-Aragon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


This work aimed at studying the influence of baking temperature and formulation on the formation of undesirable Maillard compounds called neoformed contaminants (NFC) in a model cookie system. Four NFCs were observed as furosine (FUR), carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide (ACR) for three baking temperatures - 150, 200 and 230°C - and three recipe variables as sugar type, fat saturation level and leavening agent. The results showed significant accumulation of all neoformed contaminants along baking with specifically strong temperature dependence for HMF and ACR while CML and FUR were more time dependent. The type of sugar used is determinant regarding NFC formation: glucose tends to generate more HMF than sucrose at low baking temperatures and more CML whatever the baking temperature. The substitution of sugar by a sugar alcohol like maltitol, allows strongly limiting HMF production. Surprisingly, no promoting effect of ammonium carbonate on ACR could be evidenced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S93-S95
JournalCzech Journal of Food Sciences
Issue numberSPEC. ISS.
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Baking temperature
  • Cereal products
  • Maillard reactions
  • Newly formed compounds
  • Sugar type


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