Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

A.A.A. Jacobs, J. van Baal, M.A. Smits, H.Z.H. Taweel, W.H. Hendriks, A.M. van Vuuren, J. Dijkstra

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Abstract

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in dairy cow rations on the expression of SCD1 and SCD5 in the mammary gland of dairy cows. Twenty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented (dry matter basis) with 2.7% rapeseed oil as a source of C18:1 cis-9; 2.7% soybean oil as a source of C18:2 cis-9,12; 2.7% linseed oil as a source of C18:3 cis-9,12,15; or 2.7% of a 1:1:1 mixture of the 3 oils. The oil supplements were included in the concentrate, which was fed together with corn silage and grass silage. In addition, cows were grazing on pasture, consisting mainly of perennial ryegrass, during the day. Biopsies from the mammary gland were taken and analyzed for mRNA expression of SCD1 and SCD5 by using quantitative real-time PCR. Milk yield as well as milk protein and fat contents did not differ among the 4 dietary treatments. Dietary supplementation with rapeseed oil and linseed oil increased proportions of C18:1 cis-9 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 in blood plasma, respectively, compared with the other treatments. Supplementation with soybean oil and linseed oil increased milk FA proportions of C18:2 cis-9,12 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15, respectively, but supplementation with rapeseed oil did not increase C18:1 cis-9 in milk. Mammary SCD1 expression was reduced by supplementation of soybean oil compared with rapeseed oil and linseed oil. In contrast, SCD5 expression did not differ among the 4 treatments. The C16 and C18 desaturation indices, representing proxies for SCD activity, were lower for the soybean oil diet compared with the diet supplemented with a mixture of the 3 oils. In conclusion, our study shows that mammary SCD1 expression is significantly downregulated in dairy cows by feeding unprotected soybean oil compared with rapeseed oil or linseed oil, and this is partially reflected by the lower desaturase indices in the milk. Furthermore, mammary SCD5 expression appears to be differently regulated than expression of SCD1
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)874-887
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume94
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Keywords

  • conjugated linoleic-acid
  • milk-fat synthesis
  • fish-oil
  • lipid-metabolism
  • messenger-rna
  • sunflower oil
  • intestinal digestibility
  • nutritional regulation
  • seasonal-variation
  • lipogenic genes

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