Effects of enzymatic treatment on the in vitro digestion and fermentation patterns of mulberry fruit juice: A focus on carbohydrates

Peihuan Luo, Jian Ai, Yuxin Wang, Songen Wang, Henk A. Schols, Hauke Smidt, Maurizio Battino, Weibin Bai*, Lingmin Tian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic treatments (pectinase, pectin lyase, and cellulase) on the in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of whole mulberry fruit juice. The analysis focused on changes in carbohydrate properties within the black mulberry fruit matrix during simulated digestion and fermentation. Human fecal microbiota were collected and introduced to the fruit matrix to monitor the fate of both soluble and insoluble polysaccharides during fermentation. The results revealed that enzymatic treatments enhanced the solubilization of carbohydrates from mulberry fruits, with pectinase showing the most significant effect. Throughout the process of in vitro digestion, there was a gradual increase in the percentage of solubilized carbohydrates from the mulberry juice substrate. The digested suspensions underwent dialysis to remove degradation fragments, and a lower quantity of carbohydrate in the enzyme-treated groups compared to the control. Polysaccharide populations with varying molecular weights (Mw) were obtained from the soluble fractions of mulberry residues for subsequent fermentation. An increase in Mw of soluble polysaccharides was detected by HPSEC during fermentation in certain cases. The gut microbiota demonstrated the ability to convert specific insoluble fractions into soluble components, which were subsequently subjected to microbial utilization. Enzymatic treatments during mulberry juice preparation can potentially positively impact health by influencing gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) modulations. Enzymes could serve as valuable tools for producing functional fruit and vegetable juices, with the need to specify processing conditions for specific raw materials remaining a subject of further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109223
JournalFood Hydrocolloids
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Enzymatic treatment
  • Fermentation pattern
  • Gut microbiota
  • In vitro digestion
  • Mulberry juice


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