Effects of dietary crude protein level on odour from pig manure

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level on odour emission, odour intensity, hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure and on manure composition (pH, total nitrogen, ammonium, volatile fatty acids, indolic, phenolic and sulphur-containing compounds). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomised complete-block design with three treatments in six blocks. Treatment groups were 12%, 15% and 18% CP diets. Barley was exchanged for soya-bean meal. Crystalline amino acids (AA) were included in the 12% CP diet up to the level of pigs' requirement, the same amount of AA was added to the 15% and 18% CP diets. Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 36.5 +/- 3.4 kg (mean +/- s.d.) were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 x maintenance requirement for net energy (NE: 293 kJ/kg BW0.75). Feed was mixed with water, 1/2.5 (w/w). Faeces and urine of each pig were accumulated together in a separate manure pit under the slatted floor After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, the manure pits were cleaned and manure was collected. In the 5th week of the collection period, air samples for odour and ammonia analyses, and manure samples were collected directly from each manure pit. Air samples were analysed for odour concentration and for hedonic value and intensity above odour detection threshold. Manure samples were analysed for volatile fatty acids, and indolic, phenolic and sulphurous compounds, ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations. Reducing dietary CP from 18% to 12% lowered odour emission (P <0.05) and ammonia emission (P = 0.01) from pig manure by 80% and 53%, respectively. Reduced dietary CP decreased total nitrogen, methyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, ethanethiol, phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, indole and 3-methyl indole concentrations in the manure (P <0.05). Volatile fatty acids and cresols concentrations in the manure of pigs fed different dietary CP levels were similar A reduction of dietary CP and at the same time providing essential AA is an option to reduce odour emission as well as ammonia emission from pig manure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)734-744
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • growing-finishing pigs
  • nitrogen-excretion
  • ammonia emission
  • fattening pigs
  • slurry
  • ph
  • volatilization
  • offensiveness

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