Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production

Pavlos Kalaitzoglou, Wim van Ieperen, Jeremy Harbinson, Maarten van der Meer, Stavros Martinakos, Kees Weerheim, Celine C.S. Nicole, Leo F.M. Marcelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5%) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.

LanguageEnglish
Article number322
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

far-red light
fruiting
phytochrome
plant growth
tomatoes
shade
solar radiation
leaf area
plant architecture
photophase
photosynthetically active radiation
internodes
plant development
growth and development
flowering
fruits

Keywords

  • Far-red
  • LED
  • Light absorption
  • Photomorphogenesis
  • Shade avoidance
  • Tomato

Cite this

@article{92630bbbd2784d478d6072bb331e00ea,
title = "Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production",
abstract = "Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5{\%}) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.",
keywords = "Far-red, LED, Light absorption, Photomorphogenesis, Shade avoidance, Tomato",
author = "Pavlos Kalaitzoglou and {van Ieperen}, Wim and Jeremy Harbinson and {van der Meer}, Maarten and Stavros Martinakos and Kees Weerheim and Nicole, {Celine C.S.} and Marcelis, {Leo F.M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "22",
doi = "10.3389/fpls.2019.00322",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Frontiers in Plant Science",
issn = "1664-462X",
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}

Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production. / Kalaitzoglou, Pavlos; van Ieperen, Wim; Harbinson, Jeremy; van der Meer, Maarten; Martinakos, Stavros; Weerheim, Kees; Nicole, Celine C.S.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 10, 322, 22.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production

AU - Kalaitzoglou, Pavlos

AU - van Ieperen, Wim

AU - Harbinson, Jeremy

AU - van der Meer, Maarten

AU - Martinakos, Stavros

AU - Weerheim, Kees

AU - Nicole, Celine C.S.

AU - Marcelis, Leo F.M.

PY - 2019/3/22

Y1 - 2019/3/22

N2 - Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5%) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.

AB - Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5%) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.

KW - Far-red

KW - LED

KW - Light absorption

KW - Photomorphogenesis

KW - Shade avoidance

KW - Tomato

U2 - 10.3389/fpls.2019.00322

DO - 10.3389/fpls.2019.00322

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Frontiers in Plant Science

T2 - Frontiers in Plant Science

JF - Frontiers in Plant Science

SN - 1664-462X

M1 - 322

ER -