Effects of age and environment on adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccination in dairy goats in relation to paratuberculosis control strategies

Ad Koets, Lars Ravesloot, Robin Ruuls, Annemieke Dinkla, Susanne Eisenberg, Karianne Lievaart-Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.

LanguageEnglish
Article number62
JournalVeterinary Sciences
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

Paratuberculosis
Mycobacterium avium
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
dairy goats
paratuberculosis
Adaptive Immunity
Goats
Vaccination
vaccination
goats
herds
kids (goats)
diagnostic techniques
Routine Diagnostic Tests
antibodies
Antibodies
dairy farming
adaptive immunity
Netherlands
immune response

Keywords

  • Diagnostics
  • Immunity
  • Mycobacterium
  • Paratuberculosis
  • Vaccination

Cite this

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title = "Effects of age and environment on adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccination in dairy goats in relation to paratuberculosis control strategies",
abstract = "Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75{\%} herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.",
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Effects of age and environment on adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccination in dairy goats in relation to paratuberculosis control strategies. / Koets, Ad; Ravesloot, Lars; Ruuls, Robin; Dinkla, Annemieke; Eisenberg, Susanne; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne.

In: Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 3, 62, 01.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Ravesloot, Lars

AU - Ruuls, Robin

AU - Dinkla, Annemieke

AU - Eisenberg, Susanne

AU - Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne

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N2 - Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.

AB - Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests.

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