Effective physical refining for the mitigation of processing contaminants in palm oil at pilot scale

Sergio B. Oey, H.J. van der Fels-Klerx, Vincenzo Fogliano, Stefan P.J. van Leeuwen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to develop a mitigation strategy for the formation of 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol esters (2-MCPDE), 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE), and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) during palm oil refining. Single physical refining was the starting point (the control) for this study. Experimental treatments including a double refining repeating the entire single refining process (T1), double refining with a high-low deodorization temperature (T2), and double deodorization (T3) with similar temperature settings as T2 were performed. Compared with the control experiment, T2 successfully reduced the formation of GE by 87%; in particular, the second degumming and bleaching were crucial for eliminating GE. Both 2- and 3-MCPDE were formed prior to the deodorization process in all treatments. MCPDE concentrations remained stable throughout the refining process and, hence, they require a different mitigation approach as compared to GE. These results provide useful insights which can directly be implemented by the oil industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109748
JournalFood Research International
Issue numberA
Early online date28 Sept 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • 3-monochloropropanediol
  • Elimination methods
  • Glycidyl esters
  • Mitigation strategies
  • Pilot plant refining
  • Refined edible oils


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