In care-physical activity (care-PA) initiatives, primary care and sports collaborate to stimulate PA among adults at risk of lifestyle related diseases. Preliminary results of Dutch care-PA initiatives for low socioeconomic status (SES) adults indicate that these initiatives successfully lower participants’ body weight and improve quality of life. However, insight into elements that make these initiatives work is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to unravel the effective elements of care-PA initiatives for low SES adults.
Concept Mapping (CM) was used as tool to identify and cluster the effective elements. Nineteen Dutch health promotion experts individually listed as many elements as they felt were of importance to the effectiveness of care-PA initiatives. Next, each expert was asked to cluster the elements and to score them on importance. Then, CS Global MAX software was used for multidimensional scaling and a hierarchical cluster analysis to develop a cluster map. Finally, the cluster map was presented, discussed, and refined in a group meeting with 11 of the experts.
The experts came up with 113 unique effective elements of care-PA initiatives for low SES adults, clustered into 11 clusters: 1) approach of professionals, 2) barriers experienced during the programme, 3) local embedding, 4) customisation of the programme to target population, 5) social support, 6) methods within the programme, 7) competencies of professionals, 8) accessibility of the programme, 9) actions within the programme, 10) recruitment of participants, and 11) intersectoral collaboration.
A valuable overview of the effective elements of care-PA initiatives for low SES adults was created. The results can be used to improve existing care-PA initiatives and to develop new ones targeted at low SES adults at risk of lifestyle related diseases. This may eventually help to reduce health inequalities between low and high SES adults.
Concept mapping has been a useful group-based tool to obtain information on the effective elements of care-PA initiatives, in which individual input from health promotion experts has been collected.
The overview of effective elements of care-PA initiatives for low SES adults as presented in this study is valuable for the development of care-PA initiatives specifically targeted at low SES adults.