Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

N. Zijlstra, M. Mars, R.A. de Wijk, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga, J.J. Holst, C. de Graaf

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36 Citations (Scopus)


In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine glucose, CCK-8, active ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations. After the last blood withdrawal, subjects were offered a chocolate cake meal to consume ad libitum. In the appetite ratings we observed a small effect showing that the semi-solid product is apparently considered as more satisfying than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102 ± 55 g after the liquid and 96 ± 46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro-intestinal hormones CCK-8, ghrelin and GLP-1 after a fixed preload of a liquid and semi-solid product similar in energy- and macronutrient composition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-75
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • food-intake
  • physical state
  • eating behavior
  • meal viscosity
  • body-weight
  • satiety
  • humans
  • carbohydrate
  • liquid
  • hunger


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