Microsclerotium formation by six isolates of Verticillium dahliae was studied at different temperatures both in vitro and in Arabidopsis thaliana. In vitro mycelial growth was optimal at 25°C, but microsclerotium formation was greatest at 20°C (two isolates) or 15-20°C (one isolate). Seedlings of A. thaliana were root-dipped in a conidial suspension, planted, and either placed at 5, 10, 15, or 25°C, or left at 20°C until the onset of senescence, after which some of the plants were placed at 5, 10, 15, or 25°C. The amount of microsclerotia per unit of shoot weight was assessed in relation to isolate and temperature. The optimal temperature for production of microsclerotia was 15-25°C. Two isolates each produced about 10 times more microsclerotia than each of the other four isolates. For these isolates, high R2adj.-values of 0.77 and 0.66 were obtained, with temperature and its square as highly significant (P < 0.001) independent variables. R2adj.-values for the other isolates varied between 0.28 and 0.39. Moving plants to different temperatures at the onset of senescence led to microsclerotial densities that were intermediate between densities on plants that had grown at constantly 20°C and plants grown at other temperatures. This suggests that vascular colonization rate and rate of microsclerotium formation are similarly affected by temperature. The senescence rate of plants appeared unimportant except for plants grown at 25°C, which showed the highest amounts of microsclerotia per unit of plant weight in the most rapidly senescing plants.
Soesanto, L., & Termorshuizen, A. J. (2001). Effect of temperature on the formation of microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae. Journal of Phytopathology, 149, 685-691. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0434.2001.00697.x