Chlorine efficacy as a biocide for ballast water treatment was investigated under cold-and warm-water temperatures across winter and summer seasons. Freshwater phytoplankton samples were collected and acclimated under in situ environmental conditions ranging from 2 to 22 °C. Samples were exposed to seven chlorine treatments (from 0.02 to 5.0 ppm), in addition to a control (0.0 ppm). Free-chlorine concentrations, phytoplankton abundance, and photosynthetic efficiency were measured up to 48 h following treatment. After 4 h of treatment at concentrations less than 0.22 ppm, phytoplankton densities were reduced by more than 50%, without cell resurgence. Similar reduction was recorded immediately after exposure when chlorine concentrations were higher than 3.0 ppm. After 8 h, free chlorine neared 0.0 ppm for initial chlorine concentrations below 1.2 ppm, irrespective of temperature regime. Winter phytoplankton exhibited slightly lower mortality to chlorine exposure regardless of the temperature, although they also exhibited lower photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a general absence of significant effect of temperature on the chlorine decay, our results suggest that higher doses of chlorine or longer exposure times may be required during winter to achieve full treatment effect. Tests at large scales are needed to further confirm these findings.
|Journal||Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|