Effect of temperature on chlorine treatment for elimination of freshwater phytoplankton in ballast water: Bench-scale test

Oscar Casas-Monroy*, Julie Vanden Byllaardt, Johanna Bradie, Andrea Sneekes, Klaas Kaag, Sarah A. Bailey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Chlorine efficacy as a biocide for ballast water treatment was investigated under cold-and warm-water temperatures across winter and summer seasons. Freshwater phytoplankton samples were collected and acclimated under in situ environmental conditions ranging from 2 to 22 °C. Samples were exposed to seven chlorine treatments (from 0.02 to 5.0 ppm), in addition to a control (0.0 ppm). Free-chlorine concentrations, phytoplankton abundance, and photosynthetic efficiency were measured up to 48 h following treatment. After 4 h of treatment at concentrations less than 0.22 ppm, phytoplankton densities were reduced by more than 50%, without cell resurgence. Similar reduction was recorded immediately after exposure when chlorine concentrations were higher than 3.0 ppm. After 8 h, free chlorine neared 0.0 ppm for initial chlorine concentrations below 1.2 ppm, irrespective of temperature regime. Winter phytoplankton exhibited slightly lower mortality to chlorine exposure regardless of the temperature, although they also exhibited lower photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a general absence of significant effect of temperature on the chlorine decay, our results suggest that higher doses of chlorine or longer exposure times may be required during winter to achieve full treatment effect. Tests at large scales are needed to further confirm these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1768-1780
JournalCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume76
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

ballast water
chlorine
phytoplankton
temperature
testing
winter
effect
test
biocides
water treatment
warm water
cold water
exposure duration
water temperature
pesticide
deterioration
environmental conditions
sampling
mortality
environmental factors

Cite this

@article{2cd6d3c898e345179c71fc21af0e6c75,
title = "Effect of temperature on chlorine treatment for elimination of freshwater phytoplankton in ballast water: Bench-scale test",
abstract = "Chlorine efficacy as a biocide for ballast water treatment was investigated under cold-and warm-water temperatures across winter and summer seasons. Freshwater phytoplankton samples were collected and acclimated under in situ environmental conditions ranging from 2 to 22 °C. Samples were exposed to seven chlorine treatments (from 0.02 to 5.0 ppm), in addition to a control (0.0 ppm). Free-chlorine concentrations, phytoplankton abundance, and photosynthetic efficiency were measured up to 48 h following treatment. After 4 h of treatment at concentrations less than 0.22 ppm, phytoplankton densities were reduced by more than 50{\%}, without cell resurgence. Similar reduction was recorded immediately after exposure when chlorine concentrations were higher than 3.0 ppm. After 8 h, free chlorine neared 0.0 ppm for initial chlorine concentrations below 1.2 ppm, irrespective of temperature regime. Winter phytoplankton exhibited slightly lower mortality to chlorine exposure regardless of the temperature, although they also exhibited lower photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a general absence of significant effect of temperature on the chlorine decay, our results suggest that higher doses of chlorine or longer exposure times may be required during winter to achieve full treatment effect. Tests at large scales are needed to further confirm these findings.",
author = "Oscar Casas-Monroy and {Vanden Byllaardt}, Julie and Johanna Bradie and Andrea Sneekes and Klaas Kaag and Bailey, {Sarah A.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1139/cjfas-2018-0179",
language = "English",
volume = "76",
pages = "1768--1780",
journal = "Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences",
issn = "0706-652X",
publisher = "NRC Research Press",
number = "10",

}

Effect of temperature on chlorine treatment for elimination of freshwater phytoplankton in ballast water: Bench-scale test. / Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Bradie, Johanna; Sneekes, Andrea; Kaag, Klaas; Bailey, Sarah A.

In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 76, No. 10, 2019, p. 1768-1780.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of temperature on chlorine treatment for elimination of freshwater phytoplankton in ballast water: Bench-scale test

AU - Casas-Monroy, Oscar

AU - Vanden Byllaardt, Julie

AU - Bradie, Johanna

AU - Sneekes, Andrea

AU - Kaag, Klaas

AU - Bailey, Sarah A.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Chlorine efficacy as a biocide for ballast water treatment was investigated under cold-and warm-water temperatures across winter and summer seasons. Freshwater phytoplankton samples were collected and acclimated under in situ environmental conditions ranging from 2 to 22 °C. Samples were exposed to seven chlorine treatments (from 0.02 to 5.0 ppm), in addition to a control (0.0 ppm). Free-chlorine concentrations, phytoplankton abundance, and photosynthetic efficiency were measured up to 48 h following treatment. After 4 h of treatment at concentrations less than 0.22 ppm, phytoplankton densities were reduced by more than 50%, without cell resurgence. Similar reduction was recorded immediately after exposure when chlorine concentrations were higher than 3.0 ppm. After 8 h, free chlorine neared 0.0 ppm for initial chlorine concentrations below 1.2 ppm, irrespective of temperature regime. Winter phytoplankton exhibited slightly lower mortality to chlorine exposure regardless of the temperature, although they also exhibited lower photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a general absence of significant effect of temperature on the chlorine decay, our results suggest that higher doses of chlorine or longer exposure times may be required during winter to achieve full treatment effect. Tests at large scales are needed to further confirm these findings.

AB - Chlorine efficacy as a biocide for ballast water treatment was investigated under cold-and warm-water temperatures across winter and summer seasons. Freshwater phytoplankton samples were collected and acclimated under in situ environmental conditions ranging from 2 to 22 °C. Samples were exposed to seven chlorine treatments (from 0.02 to 5.0 ppm), in addition to a control (0.0 ppm). Free-chlorine concentrations, phytoplankton abundance, and photosynthetic efficiency were measured up to 48 h following treatment. After 4 h of treatment at concentrations less than 0.22 ppm, phytoplankton densities were reduced by more than 50%, without cell resurgence. Similar reduction was recorded immediately after exposure when chlorine concentrations were higher than 3.0 ppm. After 8 h, free chlorine neared 0.0 ppm for initial chlorine concentrations below 1.2 ppm, irrespective of temperature regime. Winter phytoplankton exhibited slightly lower mortality to chlorine exposure regardless of the temperature, although they also exhibited lower photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a general absence of significant effect of temperature on the chlorine decay, our results suggest that higher doses of chlorine or longer exposure times may be required during winter to achieve full treatment effect. Tests at large scales are needed to further confirm these findings.

U2 - 10.1139/cjfas-2018-0179

DO - 10.1139/cjfas-2018-0179

M3 - Article

VL - 76

SP - 1768

EP - 1780

JO - Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

JF - Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

SN - 0706-652X

IS - 10

ER -