Effect of soybean processing on content and bioaccessibility of folate, vitamin B12 and isoflavones in tofu and tempe

H. Mo, S. Kariluoto, V. Piironen, Y. Zhu, M.G. Sanders, J.P. Vincken, J.C.M. Wolkers-Rooijackers, M.J.R. Nout

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51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose - To compare the content of bioaccessible folate, vitamin B12, and isoflavones in tofu and tempe, as influenced by soybean variety and food processing, particularly fermentation. Principal results - Raw soybeans contained 2207–2671 µg/kg (dry matter) folate, cooked tempe 1493–4143, and cooked tofu 968–1273 µg/kg, the difference was attributed to the fermentation in tempe. Vitamin B12 was detected only in tempe (0.16–0.72 µg/kg). Isoflavone aglycones were formed during soaking of soybeans, with only minor differences between the contents in cooked tempe (average 1922–2968 µg/kg) or tofu (1667–2782 µg/kg) but strongly depending on bean variety. Conclusions - Folate and vitamin B12 contents were mainly influenced by microbial activity during fermentation, whereas isoflavone aglycone content was determined by bean variety. Tofu had lower folate and vitamin B12, but equal isoflavone contents as tempe. Bioaccessibility of folate (80–100%) and isoflavone aglycones (100%) were high
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2418-2425
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume141
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • solid-substrate fermentation
  • folic-acid
  • in-vitro
  • gastrointestinal model
  • nutritional value
  • binding protein
  • bioavailability
  • rats
  • calcium
  • women

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