The feasibility of thermophilic (55 degreesC) anaerobic treatment applied to colour removal of a triazine contained reactive azo dye was investigated in two 0.531 expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactors in parallel at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h. Generally, this group of azo dyes shows the lowest decolourisation rates during mesophilic anaerobic treatment. The impact of the redox mediator addition on colour removal rates was also evaluated. Reactive Red 2 (RR2) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) were selected as model compounds for azo dye and redox mediator, respectively. The reactors achieved excellent colour removal efficiencies with a high stability, even when high loading rates of RR2 were applied (2.7 g RR2 l(-1) per day). Although AQDS addition at catalytic concentrations improved the decolourisation rates, the impact of AQDS on colour removal was less apparent than expected. Results show that the AQDS-free reactor R2 achieved excellent colour removal rates with efficiencies around 91%, compared with the efficiencies around 95% for the AQDS-supplied reactor R1. Batch experiments confirmed that the decolourisation rates were co-substrate dependent, in which the volatile fatty acids (VFA) mixture was the least efficient co-substrate. The highest decolourisation rate was achieved in the presence of either hydrogen or formate, although the presence of glucose had a significant impact on the colour removal rates. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- granular sludge
- methanogenic sludge