Concern exists about the potential effects of pile-driving sounds on fish, but evidence is limited, especially for fish larvae. A device was developed to expose larvae to accurately reproduced pile-driving sounds. Controlled exposure experiments were carried out to examine the lethal effects in common sole larvae. No significant effects were observed at zero-to-peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1 μPa 2 and cumulative sound exposure levels up to 206 dB re 1 μPa 2 ·s, which is well above the US interim criteria for nonauditory tissue damage in fish. Experiments are presently being carried out for European sea bass and herring larvae.
- Controlled exposure experiments
- Offshore wind farms