Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions

A.K.L. Oppermann, J.M.E. Noppers, M. Stieger, E. Scholten*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20% for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-157
JournalFood Research International
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Complex food systems
  • Double emulsions
  • Emulsifiers
  • Encapsulation efficiency
  • Hydrocolloids
  • Polysaccharides
  • Yield


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