Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions

A.K.L. Oppermann, J.M.E. Noppers, M. Stieger, E. Scholten*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20% for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-157
JournalFood Research International
Volume107
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Fingerprint

droplet size
Emulsions
emulsions
Oils
droplets
oils
Water
emulsifiers
Polysorbates
thickeners
water
whey protein isolate
xanthan gum
Viscosity
pectins
viscosity
fat replacers
emulsifying
gelation
Fats

Keywords

  • Complex food systems
  • Double emulsions
  • Emulsifiers
  • Encapsulation efficiency
  • Hydrocolloids
  • Polysaccharides
  • Yield

Cite this

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title = "Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions",
abstract = "In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20{\%} for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.",
keywords = "Complex food systems, Double emulsions, Emulsifiers, Encapsulation efficiency, Hydrocolloids, Polysaccharides, Yield",
author = "A.K.L. Oppermann and J.M.E. Noppers and M. Stieger and E. Scholten",
year = "2018",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Food Research International",
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Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions. / Oppermann, A.K.L.; Noppers, J.M.E.; Stieger, M.; Scholten, E.

In: Food Research International, Vol. 107, 01.05.2018, p. 148-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions

AU - Oppermann, A.K.L.

AU - Noppers, J.M.E.

AU - Stieger, M.

AU - Scholten, E.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20% for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.

AB - In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20% for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.

KW - Complex food systems

KW - Double emulsions

KW - Emulsifiers

KW - Encapsulation efficiency

KW - Hydrocolloids

KW - Polysaccharides

KW - Yield

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.021

DO - 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.021

M3 - Article

VL - 107

SP - 148

EP - 157

JO - Food Research International

JF - Food Research International

SN - 0963-9969

ER -