Purpose: Oat supplementation interventions (OSIs) may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, dietary background can modulate such effect. This systematic review assesses the effects of OSIs on CVD risk markers among adults, accounting for different dietary backgrounds or control arms. Methods: We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of oat, oat beta-glucan-rich extracts or avenanthramides on CVD risk markers. Results: Seventy-four RCTs, including 4937 predominantly hypercholesterolemic, obese subjects, with mild metabolic disturbances, were included in the systematic review. Of these, 59 RCTs contributed to the meta-analyses. Subjects receiving an OSI, compared to control arms without oats, had improved levels of total cholesterol (TC) [weighted mean difference and (95% CI) − 0.42 mmol/L, (− 0.61; − 0.22)], LDL cholesterol [− 0.29 mmol/L, (− 0.37; − 0.20)], glucose [− 0.25 nmol/L, (− 0.36; − 0.14)], body mass index [− 0.13 kg/m2, (− 0.26; − 0.01)], weight [− 0.94 kg, (− 1.84: − 0.05)], and waist circumference [− 1.06 cm, (− 1.85; − 0.27)]. RCTs on inflammation and/or oxidative stress markers were scarce and with inconsistent findings. RCTs comparing an OSI to heterogeneous interventions (e.g., wheat, eggs, rice, etc.), showed lowered levels of glycated haemoglobin, diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. The majority of included RCTs (81.1%) had some concerns for risk of bias. Conclusion: Dietary OSIs resulted in lowered levels of blood lipids and improvements in anthropometric parameters among participants with predominantly mild metabolic disturbances, regardless of dietary background or control. Further high-quality trials are warranted to establish the role of OSIs on blood pressure, glucose homeostasis and inflammation markers.
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Risk markers