Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

C. Boeckaert, B. Vlaeminck, J. Dijkstra, A. Issa-Zacharia, T. van Nespen, W. van Straalen, V. Fievez

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Abstract

Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45% decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased. The milk fatty acid profile changed as in experiment 1. However, the decrease in DMI and milk yield was less pronounced (on average 10%) at this algae supplementation level, whereas milk fat percentage decreased from 47.9 to 22.0 g/kg of milk after algae treatment. In conclusion, an algae supplementation level of about 10 g/kg of DMI proved effective to reduce the milk fat content and to modify the milk fatty acid composition toward increased CLA cis-9 trans-11, C18:1 trans, and DHA concentrations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4714-4727
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume91
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

algae
dietary carbohydrate
Rumen
rumen fermentation
Starch
Fermentation
rumen
Milk
Fatty Acids
dairy cows
fatty acid composition
Diet
dry matter intake
diet
conjugated linoleic acid
concentrates
Silage
short chain fatty acids
Volatile Fatty Acids
Butyrates

Keywords

  • conjugated linoleic-acid
  • in-vitro examination
  • fish-oil
  • composition responses
  • docosahexaenoic acid
  • nutritional quality
  • biohydrogenation
  • isomers
  • trans
  • persistency

Cite this

Boeckaert, C. ; Vlaeminck, B. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Issa-Zacharia, A. ; van Nespen, T. ; van Straalen, W. ; Fievez, V. / Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. In: Journal of Dairy Science. 2008 ; Vol. 91. pp. 4714-4727.
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abstract = "Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45{\%} decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased. The milk fatty acid profile changed as in experiment 1. However, the decrease in DMI and milk yield was less pronounced (on average 10{\%}) at this algae supplementation level, whereas milk fat percentage decreased from 47.9 to 22.0 g/kg of milk after algae treatment. In conclusion, an algae supplementation level of about 10 g/kg of DMI proved effective to reduce the milk fat content and to modify the milk fatty acid composition toward increased CLA cis-9 trans-11, C18:1 trans, and DHA concentrations.",
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year = "2008",
doi = "10.3168/jds.2008-1178",
language = "English",
volume = "91",
pages = "4714--4727",
journal = "Journal of Dairy Science",
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Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. / Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Dijkstra, J.; Issa-Zacharia, A.; van Nespen, T.; van Straalen, W.; Fievez, V.

In: Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 91, 2008, p. 4714-4727.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

AU - Boeckaert, C.

AU - Vlaeminck, B.

AU - Dijkstra, J.

AU - Issa-Zacharia, A.

AU - van Nespen, T.

AU - van Straalen, W.

AU - Fievez, V.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45% decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased. The milk fatty acid profile changed as in experiment 1. However, the decrease in DMI and milk yield was less pronounced (on average 10%) at this algae supplementation level, whereas milk fat percentage decreased from 47.9 to 22.0 g/kg of milk after algae treatment. In conclusion, an algae supplementation level of about 10 g/kg of DMI proved effective to reduce the milk fat content and to modify the milk fatty acid composition toward increased CLA cis-9 trans-11, C18:1 trans, and DHA concentrations.

AB - Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45% decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased. The milk fatty acid profile changed as in experiment 1. However, the decrease in DMI and milk yield was less pronounced (on average 10%) at this algae supplementation level, whereas milk fat percentage decreased from 47.9 to 22.0 g/kg of milk after algae treatment. In conclusion, an algae supplementation level of about 10 g/kg of DMI proved effective to reduce the milk fat content and to modify the milk fatty acid composition toward increased CLA cis-9 trans-11, C18:1 trans, and DHA concentrations.

KW - conjugated linoleic-acid

KW - in-vitro examination

KW - fish-oil

KW - composition responses

KW - docosahexaenoic acid

KW - nutritional quality

KW - biohydrogenation

KW - isomers

KW - trans

KW - persistency

U2 - 10.3168/jds.2008-1178

DO - 10.3168/jds.2008-1178

M3 - Article

VL - 91

SP - 4714

EP - 4727

JO - Journal of Dairy Science

JF - Journal of Dairy Science

SN - 0022-0302

ER -