Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on performance of nile tilapia and food web enhancement in semi-intensive pond aquaculture

K.A. Kabir, J.W. Schrama, J.A.J. Verreth, M.J. Phillips, M.C.J. Verdegem*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

When fish have only access to formulated feed, the optimal dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) for tilapia ranges between 18 and 23 g.MJ−1. In pond culture, where natural foods complement administrated feed, increasing the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio stimulates the natural food productivity. This study assessed if lowering the dietary P:E ratio (and thus increasing the C:N ratio of the feed input in the pond) below the optimal P:E ratio affects fish productivity, food web dynamics and nitrogen balances in semi-intensively managed tilapia ponds. Twelve ponds, each divided into three equally-sized compartments, were assigned to test the effect of two diets, which differed in P:E ratio (19 vs. 14 g.MJ−1). Three feeding levels (no, “low” and “high”) were nested in each pond in a split plot design. Initial fish biomass was 1166 (±16) g.compartment−1 and the experiment lasted 60 days. Decreasing P:E ratio enhanced tilapia production and specific growth rate (P <.05; 1195 vs. 985 g.compartment−1 and 1.76 vs 1.55%.d−1). Body composition of tilapia was unaffected by diet and feeding level. Despite the difference in performance, final fat content was 5% of body weight and unaffected by treatments. Averaged over both diets, survival and feed conversion ratio increased with increasing feeding level (P <.001). Diet composition did not alter measured water quality, and abundance and diversity of the related parameters of the food web. The total amount of N accumulated in the pond was lower with the low P:E ratio diet (i.e., low protein diet). The data on N gain and N balance at the pond level suggest that the food web productivity was stimulated by reducing the dietary P:E ratio below the reported optimal levels in the literature. It is hypothesized that the optimal dietary P:E ratio is dependent on the culture intensity (extensive, semi-extensive or intensive pond culture).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-242
JournalAquaculture
Volume499
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Oreochromis niloticus
dietary protein
food webs
aquaculture
food web
pond
tilapia (common name)
diet
protein
energy
feeding level
pond culture
natural foods
carbon nitrogen ratio
productivity
nitrogen
fish
food
low protein diet
carbon

Keywords

  • Food web
  • N utilization
  • P:E ratio
  • Pond

Cite this

@article{ab051faa275d43a2a4c87ab1c202d481,
title = "Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on performance of nile tilapia and food web enhancement in semi-intensive pond aquaculture",
abstract = "When fish have only access to formulated feed, the optimal dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) for tilapia ranges between 18 and 23 g.MJ−1. In pond culture, where natural foods complement administrated feed, increasing the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio stimulates the natural food productivity. This study assessed if lowering the dietary P:E ratio (and thus increasing the C:N ratio of the feed input in the pond) below the optimal P:E ratio affects fish productivity, food web dynamics and nitrogen balances in semi-intensively managed tilapia ponds. Twelve ponds, each divided into three equally-sized compartments, were assigned to test the effect of two diets, which differed in P:E ratio (19 vs. 14 g.MJ−1). Three feeding levels (no, “low” and “high”) were nested in each pond in a split plot design. Initial fish biomass was 1166 (±16) g.compartment−1 and the experiment lasted 60 days. Decreasing P:E ratio enhanced tilapia production and specific growth rate (P <.05; 1195 vs. 985 g.compartment−1 and 1.76 vs 1.55{\%}.d−1). Body composition of tilapia was unaffected by diet and feeding level. Despite the difference in performance, final fat content was 5{\%} of body weight and unaffected by treatments. Averaged over both diets, survival and feed conversion ratio increased with increasing feeding level (P <.001). Diet composition did not alter measured water quality, and abundance and diversity of the related parameters of the food web. The total amount of N accumulated in the pond− was lower with the low P:E ratio diet (i.e., low protein diet). The data on N gain and N balance at the pond level suggest that the food web productivity was stimulated by reducing the dietary P:E ratio below the reported optimal levels in the literature. It is hypothesized that the optimal dietary P:E ratio is dependent on the culture intensity (extensive, semi-extensive or intensive pond culture).",
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Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on performance of nile tilapia and food web enhancement in semi-intensive pond aquaculture. / Kabir, K.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Phillips, M.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

In: Aquaculture, Vol. 499, 15.01.2019, p. 235-242.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on performance of nile tilapia and food web enhancement in semi-intensive pond aquaculture

AU - Kabir, K.A.

AU - Schrama, J.W.

AU - Verreth, J.A.J.

AU - Phillips, M.J.

AU - Verdegem, M.C.J.

PY - 2019/1/15

Y1 - 2019/1/15

N2 - When fish have only access to formulated feed, the optimal dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) for tilapia ranges between 18 and 23 g.MJ−1. In pond culture, where natural foods complement administrated feed, increasing the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio stimulates the natural food productivity. This study assessed if lowering the dietary P:E ratio (and thus increasing the C:N ratio of the feed input in the pond) below the optimal P:E ratio affects fish productivity, food web dynamics and nitrogen balances in semi-intensively managed tilapia ponds. Twelve ponds, each divided into three equally-sized compartments, were assigned to test the effect of two diets, which differed in P:E ratio (19 vs. 14 g.MJ−1). Three feeding levels (no, “low” and “high”) were nested in each pond in a split plot design. Initial fish biomass was 1166 (±16) g.compartment−1 and the experiment lasted 60 days. Decreasing P:E ratio enhanced tilapia production and specific growth rate (P <.05; 1195 vs. 985 g.compartment−1 and 1.76 vs 1.55%.d−1). Body composition of tilapia was unaffected by diet and feeding level. Despite the difference in performance, final fat content was 5% of body weight and unaffected by treatments. Averaged over both diets, survival and feed conversion ratio increased with increasing feeding level (P <.001). Diet composition did not alter measured water quality, and abundance and diversity of the related parameters of the food web. The total amount of N accumulated in the pond− was lower with the low P:E ratio diet (i.e., low protein diet). The data on N gain and N balance at the pond level suggest that the food web productivity was stimulated by reducing the dietary P:E ratio below the reported optimal levels in the literature. It is hypothesized that the optimal dietary P:E ratio is dependent on the culture intensity (extensive, semi-extensive or intensive pond culture).

AB - When fish have only access to formulated feed, the optimal dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) for tilapia ranges between 18 and 23 g.MJ−1. In pond culture, where natural foods complement administrated feed, increasing the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio stimulates the natural food productivity. This study assessed if lowering the dietary P:E ratio (and thus increasing the C:N ratio of the feed input in the pond) below the optimal P:E ratio affects fish productivity, food web dynamics and nitrogen balances in semi-intensively managed tilapia ponds. Twelve ponds, each divided into three equally-sized compartments, were assigned to test the effect of two diets, which differed in P:E ratio (19 vs. 14 g.MJ−1). Three feeding levels (no, “low” and “high”) were nested in each pond in a split plot design. Initial fish biomass was 1166 (±16) g.compartment−1 and the experiment lasted 60 days. Decreasing P:E ratio enhanced tilapia production and specific growth rate (P <.05; 1195 vs. 985 g.compartment−1 and 1.76 vs 1.55%.d−1). Body composition of tilapia was unaffected by diet and feeding level. Despite the difference in performance, final fat content was 5% of body weight and unaffected by treatments. Averaged over both diets, survival and feed conversion ratio increased with increasing feeding level (P <.001). Diet composition did not alter measured water quality, and abundance and diversity of the related parameters of the food web. The total amount of N accumulated in the pond− was lower with the low P:E ratio diet (i.e., low protein diet). The data on N gain and N balance at the pond level suggest that the food web productivity was stimulated by reducing the dietary P:E ratio below the reported optimal levels in the literature. It is hypothesized that the optimal dietary P:E ratio is dependent on the culture intensity (extensive, semi-extensive or intensive pond culture).

KW - Food web

KW - N utilization

KW - P:E ratio

KW - Pond

U2 - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.09.038

DO - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.09.038

M3 - Article

VL - 499

SP - 235

EP - 242

JO - Aquaculture

JF - Aquaculture

SN - 0044-8486

ER -