Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

W. Smink, W.J.J. Gerrits, R. Hovenier, M.J.H. Geelen, M.W.A. Verstegen, A.C. Beynen

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Abstract

The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid profile, and hepatic enzyme activities involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were measured. The fat deposition:digestible fat intake ratio was significantly lower for the SO group in comparison with the groups fed the vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids. The difference between digestible intake and deposition of C18:2, reflecting its maximum disappearance rate, was highest for the SO group and lowest for the palm oil- and randomized palm oil-fed birds. The calculated minimal rate of de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), calculated as deposition minus digestible intake, was more than 50% lower for the SO group than for the other 3 dietary groups. Based on the fatty acid profiles in the liver, it would appear that increasing contents of C18:2 decrease the desaturation of saturated fatty acids into MUFA. It is concluded that a diet rich in C18:2 in comparison with different kinds of vegetable saturated fatty acids decreases the deposition of fat, especially of MUFA. It appears to be caused by a higher ß-oxidation and a reduced de novo synthesis of MUFA, but this conclusion is not fully supported by the measured activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2432-2440
JournalPoultry Science
Volume89
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Keywords

  • abdominal fat
  • unsaturated fats
  • adipose-tissue
  • beef tallow
  • palm oil
  • accumulation
  • oxidation
  • digestion
  • digestibility
  • purification

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