Effect of Day and Night Temperature on Internode and Stem Length in Chrysanthemum: Is everything Explained by DIF?

S.M.P. Carvalho, E. Heuvelink, R. Cascais, O. van Kooten

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62 Citations (Scopus)


In many plant species, including chrysanthemum, a strong positive correlation between internode length and DIF [difference between day (DT) and night (NT) temperature] has been observed. However, Langton and Cockshull (1997, Scientia Horticulturae 69: 229–237) reported no such relationship and showed that absolute DT and NT explained internode length rather than DIF. To investigate these conflicting results and to clarify the validity of the DIF concept, cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum ‘Reagan Improved’) were grown in growth chambers at all 16 combinations of four DT and four NT (16, 20, 24 and 28 °C) with a 12 h daylength. Length of internode 10, number of internodes and stem length were measured on days 5, 10, 17, 22 and 27 after starting the temperature treatments. Internode length on day 10 showed a positive linear relationship with DIF (R2 = 0?64). However, when internodes had reached their final length in all treatments (day 27), a much stronger positive linear relation was observed (R2 = 0?81). A model to predict final internode length was developed based on the absolute DT and NT responses: both responses were optimum curves and no significant interaction between DT and NT occurred [final internode length (mm) = –32?23 3?56DT 1?08NT – 0?0687DT2 – 0?0371NT2; R2 = 0?91, where TD is day temperature and TN is night temperature]. It is shown that DIF can predict final internode length only within a temperature range where effects of DT and NT are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign (18–24 °C). Internode appearance rate, as well as stem length formed during the experiment, showed an optimum response to DT.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-118
JournalAnnals of Botany
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Chrysanthemum
  • Day temperature
  • DIF
  • Elongation
  • Internode length
  • Modelling
  • Night temperature
  • Number of internodes
  • Stem length
  • Thermoperiodism


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