Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial

I.A. Brouwer, J.M. Geleijnse, V.M. Klaasen, L.A. Smit, E.J. Giltay, J. de Goede, A.C. Heijboer, D. Kromhout, M.B. Katan

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Abstract

Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 262 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration,4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Findings: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 20.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0.12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). Interpretation: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from 20.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere81519
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • n-3 fatty-acids
  • cancer risk
  • dietary-fat
  • metaanalysis
  • men
  • disease

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    Brouwer, I. A., Geleijnse, J. M., Klaasen, V. M., Smit, L. A., Giltay, E. J., de Goede, J., Heijboer, A. C., Kromhout, D., & Katan, M. B. (2013). Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial. PLoS ONE, 8(12), [e81519]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081519