Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae

L. Soesanto

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

Abstract

<p>The dynamics of <em>Verticillium dahliae</em> , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with <em>Talaromyces flavus</em> with or without additional <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> was attempted. <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> was selected as a bioassay plant for studying aspects of ecology and biological control of the pathogen because of its short life cycle and high sensitivity to the pathogen. The optimal temperature for production of microsclerotia, the survival structures of the pathogen, both <em>in vitro</em> and on <em>A. thaliana</em> was about 20°C. Microsclerotia incorporated in soil were exposed to a range of conditions of temperature and moisture and quantified on several sampling occasions. One day after incorporation, densities were low, these densities were even lower over the following 1-6 months, but subsequently densities increased. These changes were ascribed to changes in the level of soil mycostasis rather than death and new formation of microsclerotia. After application of <em>T. flavus</em> to fresh organic debris containing microsclerotia followed by a 3-wk incubation aboveground at 15 or 25°C the population density of <em>T. flavus</em> increased in soil, especially at 25°C. <em>T. flavus</em> significantly reduced the density of microsclerotia in soil, especially at 25°C, and delayed the development of senescence of <em>A. thaliana</em> at 15 and 25°C.</p><p>It is concluded that above-ground application of <em>T. flavus</em> may lead to more consistent effects. The effect of <em>P. fluorescens</em> strain P60, originally isolated from a take-all decline field continuously grown to wheat, on <em>V. dahliae</em> was also studied. Strain P60, and two other isolates of <em>P. fluorescens</em> , inhibited the <em>in vitro</em> mycelial growth of 20 isolates of <em>V. dahliae</em> , reduced formation of microsclerotia both <em>in vitro</em> and on <em>A. thaliana</em> and they retarded senescence of <em>A. thaliana</em> to a rate like that of uninoculated plants.</p>
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Jeger, M.J., Promotor
  • Termorshuizen, A.J., Promotor, External person
Award date29 Mar 2000
Place of PublicationS.l.
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789058081926
Publication statusPublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Talaromyces flavus
Verticillium dahliae
biological control
Arabidopsis thaliana
ecology
Pseudomonas fluorescens
pathogens
soil
soil density
life cycle (organisms)
temperature
population density
cotton
bioassays
potatoes
death
wheat
crops

Keywords

  • verticillium dahliae
  • plant pathogenic fungi
  • plant diseases
  • ecology
  • biological control
  • plant disease control
  • talaromyces flavus
  • bioassays
  • arabidopsis thaliana

Cite this

Soesanto, L.. / Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae. S.l. : S.n., 2000. 120 p.
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title = "Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae",
abstract = "The dynamics of Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with Talaromyces flavus with or without additional Pseudomonas fluorescens was attempted. Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as a bioassay plant for studying aspects of ecology and biological control of the pathogen because of its short life cycle and high sensitivity to the pathogen. The optimal temperature for production of microsclerotia, the survival structures of the pathogen, both in vitro and on A. thaliana was about 20°C. Microsclerotia incorporated in soil were exposed to a range of conditions of temperature and moisture and quantified on several sampling occasions. One day after incorporation, densities were low, these densities were even lower over the following 1-6 months, but subsequently densities increased. These changes were ascribed to changes in the level of soil mycostasis rather than death and new formation of microsclerotia. After application of T. flavus to fresh organic debris containing microsclerotia followed by a 3-wk incubation aboveground at 15 or 25°C the population density of T. flavus increased in soil, especially at 25°C. T. flavus significantly reduced the density of microsclerotia in soil, especially at 25°C, and delayed the development of senescence of A. thaliana at 15 and 25°C.It is concluded that above-ground application of T. flavus may lead to more consistent effects. The effect of P. fluorescens strain P60, originally isolated from a take-all decline field continuously grown to wheat, on V. dahliae was also studied. Strain P60, and two other isolates of P. fluorescens , inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of 20 isolates of V. dahliae , reduced formation of microsclerotia both in vitro and on A. thaliana and they retarded senescence of A. thaliana to a rate like that of uninoculated plants.",
keywords = "verticillium dahliae, plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels, plantenziekten, ecologie, biologische bestrijding, plantenziektebestrijding, talaromyces flavus, biotesten, arabidopsis thaliana, verticillium dahliae, plant pathogenic fungi, plant diseases, ecology, biological control, plant disease control, talaromyces flavus, bioassays, arabidopsis thaliana",
author = "L. Soesanto",
note = "WU thesis 2768 Proefschrift Wageningen",
year = "2000",
language = "English",
isbn = "9789058081926",
publisher = "S.n.",

}

Soesanto, L 2000, 'Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae', Doctor of Philosophy, S.l..

Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae. / Soesanto, L.

S.l. : S.n., 2000. 120 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

TY - THES

T1 - Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae

AU - Soesanto, L.

N1 - WU thesis 2768 Proefschrift Wageningen

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - The dynamics of Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with Talaromyces flavus with or without additional Pseudomonas fluorescens was attempted. Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as a bioassay plant for studying aspects of ecology and biological control of the pathogen because of its short life cycle and high sensitivity to the pathogen. The optimal temperature for production of microsclerotia, the survival structures of the pathogen, both in vitro and on A. thaliana was about 20°C. Microsclerotia incorporated in soil were exposed to a range of conditions of temperature and moisture and quantified on several sampling occasions. One day after incorporation, densities were low, these densities were even lower over the following 1-6 months, but subsequently densities increased. These changes were ascribed to changes in the level of soil mycostasis rather than death and new formation of microsclerotia. After application of T. flavus to fresh organic debris containing microsclerotia followed by a 3-wk incubation aboveground at 15 or 25°C the population density of T. flavus increased in soil, especially at 25°C. T. flavus significantly reduced the density of microsclerotia in soil, especially at 25°C, and delayed the development of senescence of A. thaliana at 15 and 25°C.It is concluded that above-ground application of T. flavus may lead to more consistent effects. The effect of P. fluorescens strain P60, originally isolated from a take-all decline field continuously grown to wheat, on V. dahliae was also studied. Strain P60, and two other isolates of P. fluorescens , inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of 20 isolates of V. dahliae , reduced formation of microsclerotia both in vitro and on A. thaliana and they retarded senescence of A. thaliana to a rate like that of uninoculated plants.

AB - The dynamics of Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with Talaromyces flavus with or without additional Pseudomonas fluorescens was attempted. Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as a bioassay plant for studying aspects of ecology and biological control of the pathogen because of its short life cycle and high sensitivity to the pathogen. The optimal temperature for production of microsclerotia, the survival structures of the pathogen, both in vitro and on A. thaliana was about 20°C. Microsclerotia incorporated in soil were exposed to a range of conditions of temperature and moisture and quantified on several sampling occasions. One day after incorporation, densities were low, these densities were even lower over the following 1-6 months, but subsequently densities increased. These changes were ascribed to changes in the level of soil mycostasis rather than death and new formation of microsclerotia. After application of T. flavus to fresh organic debris containing microsclerotia followed by a 3-wk incubation aboveground at 15 or 25°C the population density of T. flavus increased in soil, especially at 25°C. T. flavus significantly reduced the density of microsclerotia in soil, especially at 25°C, and delayed the development of senescence of A. thaliana at 15 and 25°C.It is concluded that above-ground application of T. flavus may lead to more consistent effects. The effect of P. fluorescens strain P60, originally isolated from a take-all decline field continuously grown to wheat, on V. dahliae was also studied. Strain P60, and two other isolates of P. fluorescens , inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of 20 isolates of V. dahliae , reduced formation of microsclerotia both in vitro and on A. thaliana and they retarded senescence of A. thaliana to a rate like that of uninoculated plants.

KW - verticillium dahliae

KW - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels

KW - plantenziekten

KW - ecologie

KW - biologische bestrijding

KW - plantenziektebestrijding

KW - talaromyces flavus

KW - biotesten

KW - arabidopsis thaliana

KW - verticillium dahliae

KW - plant pathogenic fungi

KW - plant diseases

KW - ecology

KW - biological control

KW - plant disease control

KW - talaromyces flavus

KW - bioassays

KW - arabidopsis thaliana

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789058081926

PB - S.n.

CY - S.l.

ER -

Soesanto L. Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae. S.l.: S.n., 2000. 120 p.