Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were judged appropriate for this purpose if the test systems simulated a realistic freshwater community, if the experimental design was generally sound (ANOVA or regression design, exposure concentrations described), and if published not earlier than 1980. Almost half of the collected papers did not meet these selection criteria. Effects were classified according to their magnitude and duration. The most sensitive endpoints for photosynthesis inhibitors, the most widely studied group of herbicides, were responses related to community metabolism and the structure of phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes. These endpoints showed a clear dose-response relationship. The criteria as set by the Uniform Principles appeared to provide sufficient protection for aquatic ecosystems against herbicides. Possible exceptions are the herbicides with an auxin-simulating mode of action, because aquatic macrophytes appeared to be more sensitive to these substances than algae.Functional responses of communities in phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems sometimes recovered rapidly through shifts in algae species composition and adaptation. Indirect effects on the zooplankton in such systems generally occurred at higher concentrations than primary effects. Adequate studies in macrophyte-dominated systems were rare, but in several experiments a pronounced long-term decline of macrophytes was observed at chronic concentrations only slightly above the NOEC[sub]ecosystem. This may result in considerable indirect effects on the macrophyte-associated fauna. The most important modifying factors with respect to types of effect and recovery rates following the application of herbicides to freshwater ecosystems are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWageningen
PublisherAlterra
Number of pages127
Publication statusPublished - 2000

Publication series

NameAlterra-rapport
No.88

Fingerprint

freshwater ecosystem
herbicide
pesticide
ecosystem
macrophyte
alga
phytoplankton
functional response
dose-response relationship
periphyton
literature review
experimental design
aquatic ecosystem
inhibitor
zooplankton
photosynthesis
metabolism
effect
fauna
water quality

Keywords

  • surface water
  • water quality
  • water pollution
  • ecology
  • ecosystems
  • risk assessment
  • herbicides
  • aquatic ecosystems

Cite this

@book{53ae0825cba5485d96cb9b45cdd07710,
title = "Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides",
abstract = "A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were judged appropriate for this purpose if the test systems simulated a realistic freshwater community, if the experimental design was generally sound (ANOVA or regression design, exposure concentrations described), and if published not earlier than 1980. Almost half of the collected papers did not meet these selection criteria. Effects were classified according to their magnitude and duration. The most sensitive endpoints for photosynthesis inhibitors, the most widely studied group of herbicides, were responses related to community metabolism and the structure of phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes. These endpoints showed a clear dose-response relationship. The criteria as set by the Uniform Principles appeared to provide sufficient protection for aquatic ecosystems against herbicides. Possible exceptions are the herbicides with an auxin-simulating mode of action, because aquatic macrophytes appeared to be more sensitive to these substances than algae.Functional responses of communities in phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems sometimes recovered rapidly through shifts in algae species composition and adaptation. Indirect effects on the zooplankton in such systems generally occurred at higher concentrations than primary effects. Adequate studies in macrophyte-dominated systems were rare, but in several experiments a pronounced long-term decline of macrophytes was observed at chronic concentrations only slightly above the NOEC[sub]ecosystem. This may result in considerable indirect effects on the macrophyte-associated fauna. The most important modifying factors with respect to types of effect and recovery rates following the application of herbicides to freshwater ecosystems are also discussed.",
keywords = "oppervlaktewater, waterkwaliteit, waterverontreiniging, ecologie, ecosystemen, risicoschatting, herbiciden, aquatische ecosystemen, surface water, water quality, water pollution, ecology, ecosystems, risk assessment, herbicides, aquatic ecosystems",
author = "T.C.M. Brock and J. Lahr and {van den Brink}, P.J.",
year = "2000",
language = "English",
series = "Alterra-rapport",
publisher = "Alterra",
number = "88",

}

Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides. / Brock, T.C.M.; Lahr, J.; van den Brink, P.J.

Wageningen : Alterra, 2000. 127 p. (Alterra-rapport; No. 88).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

TY - BOOK

T1 - Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

AU - Brock, T.C.M.

AU - Lahr, J.

AU - van den Brink, P.J.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were judged appropriate for this purpose if the test systems simulated a realistic freshwater community, if the experimental design was generally sound (ANOVA or regression design, exposure concentrations described), and if published not earlier than 1980. Almost half of the collected papers did not meet these selection criteria. Effects were classified according to their magnitude and duration. The most sensitive endpoints for photosynthesis inhibitors, the most widely studied group of herbicides, were responses related to community metabolism and the structure of phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes. These endpoints showed a clear dose-response relationship. The criteria as set by the Uniform Principles appeared to provide sufficient protection for aquatic ecosystems against herbicides. Possible exceptions are the herbicides with an auxin-simulating mode of action, because aquatic macrophytes appeared to be more sensitive to these substances than algae.Functional responses of communities in phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems sometimes recovered rapidly through shifts in algae species composition and adaptation. Indirect effects on the zooplankton in such systems generally occurred at higher concentrations than primary effects. Adequate studies in macrophyte-dominated systems were rare, but in several experiments a pronounced long-term decline of macrophytes was observed at chronic concentrations only slightly above the NOEC[sub]ecosystem. This may result in considerable indirect effects on the macrophyte-associated fauna. The most important modifying factors with respect to types of effect and recovery rates following the application of herbicides to freshwater ecosystems are also discussed.

AB - A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were judged appropriate for this purpose if the test systems simulated a realistic freshwater community, if the experimental design was generally sound (ANOVA or regression design, exposure concentrations described), and if published not earlier than 1980. Almost half of the collected papers did not meet these selection criteria. Effects were classified according to their magnitude and duration. The most sensitive endpoints for photosynthesis inhibitors, the most widely studied group of herbicides, were responses related to community metabolism and the structure of phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes. These endpoints showed a clear dose-response relationship. The criteria as set by the Uniform Principles appeared to provide sufficient protection for aquatic ecosystems against herbicides. Possible exceptions are the herbicides with an auxin-simulating mode of action, because aquatic macrophytes appeared to be more sensitive to these substances than algae.Functional responses of communities in phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems sometimes recovered rapidly through shifts in algae species composition and adaptation. Indirect effects on the zooplankton in such systems generally occurred at higher concentrations than primary effects. Adequate studies in macrophyte-dominated systems were rare, but in several experiments a pronounced long-term decline of macrophytes was observed at chronic concentrations only slightly above the NOEC[sub]ecosystem. This may result in considerable indirect effects on the macrophyte-associated fauna. The most important modifying factors with respect to types of effect and recovery rates following the application of herbicides to freshwater ecosystems are also discussed.

KW - oppervlaktewater

KW - waterkwaliteit

KW - waterverontreiniging

KW - ecologie

KW - ecosystemen

KW - risicoschatting

KW - herbiciden

KW - aquatische ecosystemen

KW - surface water

KW - water quality

KW - water pollution

KW - ecology

KW - ecosystems

KW - risk assessment

KW - herbicides

KW - aquatic ecosystems

M3 - Report

T3 - Alterra-rapport

BT - Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

PB - Alterra

CY - Wageningen

ER -

Brock TCM, Lahr J, van den Brink PJ. Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides. Wageningen: Alterra, 2000. 127 p. (Alterra-rapport; 88).