Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China

Tek Narayan Maraseni*, Jiansheng Qu, Bian Yue, Jingjing Zeng, Jerry Maroulis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20553-20566
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • China
  • Direct emissions
  • Indirect emissions
  • Per person household carbon emission

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