Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms

Joost Hordijk, Egil A.J. Fischer, Tine van Werven, Steven Sietsma, Liese Van Gompel, Arjen J. Timmerman, Mirlin P. Spaninks, Dick J.J. Heederik, Mirjam Nielen, Jaap A. Wagenaar, Arjan Stegeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamics of faecal ESBL/AmpC shedding in dairy cattle and farmers, a study was conducted to examine changes in shedding by individual animals, as well as environmental exposure, and to study the association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and ESBL/AmpC shedding. METHODS: The study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 20 farms and a 1 year follow-up of 10 farms. Faecal samples were cultured by both direct inoculation on MacConkey agar + 1 mg/L cefotaxime (MC+) and enrichment in LB-broth + 1 mg/L cefotaxime with subsequent inoculation on MC+. Dust samples were collected using electrostatic dustfall collectors (EDCs). Human faecal samples were collected by the farmers. Presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was screened for by PCR and sequencing. Using mixed effects logistic regression, ORs were determined and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated subsequently. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 8/20 farms were positive for ESBL/AmpC and, with 2 negative farms, were selected for Phase 2. Transient shedding of dominant allele variants was observed in the animals. EDCs and human faecal samples did not reflect what was observed in the animals. AMU was related to shedding of ESBLs in the next sampling moment [OR 14.6 (95% CI 3.0-80.0)] and the PAF of AMU was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08-0.77). Calves fed with colostrum from cows on dry-off therapy was not a risk factor [OR 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-4.9, P = 0.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ESBL/AmpC could only be partly explained by AMU. No link was shown between shedding in cattle and humans or the environment. Interventions should focus on prevention of introduction.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1531-1538
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Volume74
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2019

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Escherichia coli
Cefotaxime
Static Electricity
Colostrum
Environmental Exposure
Dust
Population
Agar
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Alleles
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Farms
Genes
Farmers
Therapeutics

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Hordijk, J., Fischer, E. A. J., van Werven, T., Sietsma, S., Van Gompel, L., Timmerman, A. J., ... Stegeman, A. (2019). Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 74(6), 1531-1538. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz035
Hordijk, Joost ; Fischer, Egil A.J. ; van Werven, Tine ; Sietsma, Steven ; Van Gompel, Liese ; Timmerman, Arjen J. ; Spaninks, Mirlin P. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Nielen, Mirjam ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Stegeman, Arjan. / Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms. In: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2019 ; Vol. 74, No. 6. pp. 1531-1538.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamics of faecal ESBL/AmpC shedding in dairy cattle and farmers, a study was conducted to examine changes in shedding by individual animals, as well as environmental exposure, and to study the association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and ESBL/AmpC shedding. METHODS: The study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 20 farms and a 1 year follow-up of 10 farms. Faecal samples were cultured by both direct inoculation on MacConkey agar + 1 mg/L cefotaxime (MC+) and enrichment in LB-broth + 1 mg/L cefotaxime with subsequent inoculation on MC+. Dust samples were collected using electrostatic dustfall collectors (EDCs). Human faecal samples were collected by the farmers. Presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was screened for by PCR and sequencing. Using mixed effects logistic regression, ORs were determined and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated subsequently. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 8/20 farms were positive for ESBL/AmpC and, with 2 negative farms, were selected for Phase 2. Transient shedding of dominant allele variants was observed in the animals. EDCs and human faecal samples did not reflect what was observed in the animals. AMU was related to shedding of ESBLs in the next sampling moment [OR 14.6 (95{\%} CI 3.0-80.0)] and the PAF of AMU was 0.36 (95{\%} CI 0.08-0.77). Calves fed with colostrum from cows on dry-off therapy was not a risk factor [OR 1.7 (95{\%} CI 0.7-4.9, P = 0.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ESBL/AmpC could only be partly explained by AMU. No link was shown between shedding in cattle and humans or the environment. Interventions should focus on prevention of introduction.",
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Hordijk, J, Fischer, EAJ, van Werven, T, Sietsma, S, Van Gompel, L, Timmerman, AJ, Spaninks, MP, Heederik, DJJ, Nielen, M, Wagenaar, JA & Stegeman, A 2019, 'Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms', The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1531-1538. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz035

Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms. / Hordijk, Joost; Fischer, Egil A.J.; van Werven, Tine; Sietsma, Steven; Van Gompel, Liese; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Spaninks, Mirlin P.; Heederik, Dick J.J.; Nielen, Mirjam; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Stegeman, Arjan.

In: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, Vol. 74, No. 6, 08.02.2019, p. 1531-1538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms

AU - Hordijk, Joost

AU - Fischer, Egil A.J.

AU - van Werven, Tine

AU - Sietsma, Steven

AU - Van Gompel, Liese

AU - Timmerman, Arjen J.

AU - Spaninks, Mirlin P.

AU - Heederik, Dick J.J.

AU - Nielen, Mirjam

AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A.

AU - Stegeman, Arjan

PY - 2019/2/8

Y1 - 2019/2/8

N2 - OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamics of faecal ESBL/AmpC shedding in dairy cattle and farmers, a study was conducted to examine changes in shedding by individual animals, as well as environmental exposure, and to study the association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and ESBL/AmpC shedding. METHODS: The study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 20 farms and a 1 year follow-up of 10 farms. Faecal samples were cultured by both direct inoculation on MacConkey agar + 1 mg/L cefotaxime (MC+) and enrichment in LB-broth + 1 mg/L cefotaxime with subsequent inoculation on MC+. Dust samples were collected using electrostatic dustfall collectors (EDCs). Human faecal samples were collected by the farmers. Presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was screened for by PCR and sequencing. Using mixed effects logistic regression, ORs were determined and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated subsequently. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 8/20 farms were positive for ESBL/AmpC and, with 2 negative farms, were selected for Phase 2. Transient shedding of dominant allele variants was observed in the animals. EDCs and human faecal samples did not reflect what was observed in the animals. AMU was related to shedding of ESBLs in the next sampling moment [OR 14.6 (95% CI 3.0-80.0)] and the PAF of AMU was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08-0.77). Calves fed with colostrum from cows on dry-off therapy was not a risk factor [OR 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-4.9, P = 0.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ESBL/AmpC could only be partly explained by AMU. No link was shown between shedding in cattle and humans or the environment. Interventions should focus on prevention of introduction.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamics of faecal ESBL/AmpC shedding in dairy cattle and farmers, a study was conducted to examine changes in shedding by individual animals, as well as environmental exposure, and to study the association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and ESBL/AmpC shedding. METHODS: The study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 20 farms and a 1 year follow-up of 10 farms. Faecal samples were cultured by both direct inoculation on MacConkey agar + 1 mg/L cefotaxime (MC+) and enrichment in LB-broth + 1 mg/L cefotaxime with subsequent inoculation on MC+. Dust samples were collected using electrostatic dustfall collectors (EDCs). Human faecal samples were collected by the farmers. Presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was screened for by PCR and sequencing. Using mixed effects logistic regression, ORs were determined and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated subsequently. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 8/20 farms were positive for ESBL/AmpC and, with 2 negative farms, were selected for Phase 2. Transient shedding of dominant allele variants was observed in the animals. EDCs and human faecal samples did not reflect what was observed in the animals. AMU was related to shedding of ESBLs in the next sampling moment [OR 14.6 (95% CI 3.0-80.0)] and the PAF of AMU was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08-0.77). Calves fed with colostrum from cows on dry-off therapy was not a risk factor [OR 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-4.9, P = 0.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ESBL/AmpC could only be partly explained by AMU. No link was shown between shedding in cattle and humans or the environment. Interventions should focus on prevention of introduction.

U2 - 10.1093/jac/dkz035

DO - 10.1093/jac/dkz035

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 1531

EP - 1538

JO - Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

T2 - Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

JF - Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

SN - 0305-7453

IS - 6

ER -

Hordijk J, Fischer EAJ, van Werven T, Sietsma S, Van Gompel L, Timmerman AJ et al. Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2019 Feb 8;74(6):1531-1538. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz035