Dutch Environmental Risk Indicator for Plant Protection Products

R. Kruijne, A.M.A. van der Linden, J.W. Deneer, J.G. Groenwold, E.L. Wipfler

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


The NMI 3 focusses on indicators for emissions to surface water and the related aquatic risk resulting from agricultural use of pesticides in the Netherlands. The risk indicator is the exposure toxicity ratio. The model also considers the risk to groundwater, soil organisms and the terrestrial ecosystem. The model calculates indicators for emission to surface water resulting from atmospheric deposition, spray drift, drainage flow, point sources, discharge from greenhouses. The model combines a wide range of information about pesticide sales, usage, spray drift mitigation, emission factors, crop maps, surface water, soil, climate, and substance properties. The primary goal is to compare on a relative scale the annual risk at national scale at the starting and end year of the policy period. The results can be used for ranking, for comparing applications of similar type and for visualisation of spatial patterns of indicators. The result cannot be translated into a risk at a specific location and time.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWageningen
Number of pages88
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Publication series

PublisherAlterra Wageningen
ISSN (Print)1566-7197


  • pesticides
  • deposition
  • ecotoxicology
  • ecosystems
  • aquatic ecology
  • soil ecology


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