Dry deposition of ammonia in a coastal dune area: Measurements and modeling

K.J.A. Vendel*, R.J. Wichink Kruit, M. Blom, P. van den Bulk, B. van Egmond, A. Frumau, S. Rutledge-Jonker, A. Hensen, M.C. van Zanten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Ammonia deposition is a threat to many natural ecosystems, including coastal dune areas, because of eutrophication and acidification. Direct measurements of ammonia fluxes are nevertheless scarce. In this paper we present a full year of measurements to derive the ammonia dry deposition flux in a Dutch coastal dune ecosystem, based on the aerodynamic flux-gradient method (AGM). We found a mean ammonia flux of −7.1 ± 1.7 ng m−2 s−1, and an annual ammonia deposition flux of −132 ± 32 mol ha−1 yr−1 (equivalent to 1.8 ± 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1), which is at the low end of the range from estimates from literature made with inferential methods. Modeling the fluxes with the DEPAC module resulted in a mean flux of −17.0 ng m−2 s−1. The model overestimated the deposition fluxes, but diurnal variations of the fluxes derived from measurements were well captured by the model. We propose to change certain DEPAC parameters, like the leaf area index, to values more applicable for a dune ecosystem and show that this improves the agreement between model and measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119596
Number of pages10
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • Ammonia fluxes
  • Coastal dunes
  • Dry deposition
  • Flux gradient
  • Measurements
  • Modeling


Dive into the research topics of 'Dry deposition of ammonia in a coastal dune area: Measurements and modeling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this