Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective

Per Schjønning*, J.J.H. van den Akker, Thomas Keller, M.H. Greve, Mathieu Lamandé, Asko Simojoki, Matthias Stettler, Johan Arvidsson, Henrik Breuning-Madsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases in the mechanical stresses exerted on the soil profile during the last five decades. Surveys and comparative measurements (DPSIR-S) in the literature indicate that much of the European subsoil is compacted to critical levels for cropping. This calls for changes in agricultural management (DPSIR-R). Mechanical stresses impact the soil (DPSIR-I) by reducing the volume, dimensions, and interconnections of soil pores. Subsequent impacts on ecosystem services (subtle DPSIR-I aspects) include a decrease in crop production, an impaired soil filtering of pollutants, and the risk of higher greenhouse gas emissions. The natural ability of compacted subsoil to recover is poor. We highlight the need to expand the DPSIR concept to include a risk assessment methodology to identify sustainable management systems. Risk assessment involves the evaluation of the mechanistic causeeeffect chain of the compaction process. Measured data as well as modeling indicate that contemporary tires are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups of stakeholders including researchers, farmers and their consultants, and policy-makers need to identify sustainable traffic systems that secure both presently focused ecosystem services as well as nonuse soil values (the bequest for future generations).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Agronomy
PublisherApple Academic Press Inc
Pages183-237
Volume133
ISBN (Print)9780128030523
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Publication series

NameAdvances in Agronomy
Volume133
ISSN (Print)0065-2113

Fingerprint

response analysis
soil compaction
risk assessment
subsoil
ecosystem service
ecosystem services
mechanical stress
agricultural machinery and equipment
soil
compaction
risk assessment process
farmers
economic sustainability
soil pore system
soil ecosystem
consultants
agricultural management
tires
tire
soil pollution

Cite this

Schjønning, P., van den Akker, J. J. H., Keller, T., Greve, M. H., Lamandé, M., Simojoki, A., ... Breuning-Madsen, H. (2015). Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective. In Advances in Agronomy (Vol. 133, pp. 183-237). (Advances in Agronomy; Vol. 133). Apple Academic Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.06.001
Schjønning, Per ; van den Akker, J.J.H. ; Keller, Thomas ; Greve, M.H. ; Lamandé, Mathieu ; Simojoki, Asko ; Stettler, Matthias ; Arvidsson, Johan ; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik. / Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective. Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 133 Apple Academic Press Inc, 2015. pp. 183-237 (Advances in Agronomy).
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abstract = "Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases in the mechanical stresses exerted on the soil profile during the last five decades. Surveys and comparative measurements (DPSIR-S) in the literature indicate that much of the European subsoil is compacted to critical levels for cropping. This calls for changes in agricultural management (DPSIR-R). Mechanical stresses impact the soil (DPSIR-I) by reducing the volume, dimensions, and interconnections of soil pores. Subsequent impacts on ecosystem services (subtle DPSIR-I aspects) include a decrease in crop production, an impaired soil filtering of pollutants, and the risk of higher greenhouse gas emissions. The natural ability of compacted subsoil to recover is poor. We highlight the need to expand the DPSIR concept to include a risk assessment methodology to identify sustainable management systems. Risk assessment involves the evaluation of the mechanistic causeeeffect chain of the compaction process. Measured data as well as modeling indicate that contemporary tires are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups of stakeholders including researchers, farmers and their consultants, and policy-makers need to identify sustainable traffic systems that secure both presently focused ecosystem services as well as nonuse soil values (the bequest for future generations).",
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Schjønning, P, van den Akker, JJH, Keller, T, Greve, MH, Lamandé, M, Simojoki, A, Stettler, M, Arvidsson, J & Breuning-Madsen, H 2015, Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective. in Advances in Agronomy. vol. 133, Advances in Agronomy, vol. 133, Apple Academic Press Inc, pp. 183-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.06.001

Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective. / Schjønning, Per; van den Akker, J.J.H.; Keller, Thomas; Greve, M.H.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Simojoki, Asko; Stettler, Matthias; Arvidsson, Johan; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik.

Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 133 Apple Academic Press Inc, 2015. p. 183-237 (Advances in Agronomy; Vol. 133).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective

AU - Schjønning, Per

AU - van den Akker, J.J.H.

AU - Keller, Thomas

AU - Greve, M.H.

AU - Lamandé, Mathieu

AU - Simojoki, Asko

AU - Stettler, Matthias

AU - Arvidsson, Johan

AU - Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases in the mechanical stresses exerted on the soil profile during the last five decades. Surveys and comparative measurements (DPSIR-S) in the literature indicate that much of the European subsoil is compacted to critical levels for cropping. This calls for changes in agricultural management (DPSIR-R). Mechanical stresses impact the soil (DPSIR-I) by reducing the volume, dimensions, and interconnections of soil pores. Subsequent impacts on ecosystem services (subtle DPSIR-I aspects) include a decrease in crop production, an impaired soil filtering of pollutants, and the risk of higher greenhouse gas emissions. The natural ability of compacted subsoil to recover is poor. We highlight the need to expand the DPSIR concept to include a risk assessment methodology to identify sustainable management systems. Risk assessment involves the evaluation of the mechanistic causeeeffect chain of the compaction process. Measured data as well as modeling indicate that contemporary tires are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups of stakeholders including researchers, farmers and their consultants, and policy-makers need to identify sustainable traffic systems that secure both presently focused ecosystem services as well as nonuse soil values (the bequest for future generations).

AB - Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases in the mechanical stresses exerted on the soil profile during the last five decades. Surveys and comparative measurements (DPSIR-S) in the literature indicate that much of the European subsoil is compacted to critical levels for cropping. This calls for changes in agricultural management (DPSIR-R). Mechanical stresses impact the soil (DPSIR-I) by reducing the volume, dimensions, and interconnections of soil pores. Subsequent impacts on ecosystem services (subtle DPSIR-I aspects) include a decrease in crop production, an impaired soil filtering of pollutants, and the risk of higher greenhouse gas emissions. The natural ability of compacted subsoil to recover is poor. We highlight the need to expand the DPSIR concept to include a risk assessment methodology to identify sustainable management systems. Risk assessment involves the evaluation of the mechanistic causeeeffect chain of the compaction process. Measured data as well as modeling indicate that contemporary tires are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups of stakeholders including researchers, farmers and their consultants, and policy-makers need to identify sustainable traffic systems that secure both presently focused ecosystem services as well as nonuse soil values (the bequest for future generations).

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DO - 10.1016/bs.agron.2015.06.001

M3 - Chapter

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VL - 133

T3 - Advances in Agronomy

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BT - Advances in Agronomy

PB - Apple Academic Press Inc

ER -

Schjønning P, van den Akker JJH, Keller T, Greve MH, Lamandé M, Simojoki A et al. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective. In Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 133. Apple Academic Press Inc. 2015. p. 183-237. (Advances in Agronomy). https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.06.001