Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

L. Fan, G. Liu, F. Wang, C.J. Ritsema, V. Geissen

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34 Citations (Scopus)


Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is important for the elaboration of the water supply. We studied the influence of intermittent and continuous water supply on water consumption and related activities in villages in the central region of the Wei River basin, China. Data were collected from a survey of 225 households in the sampled villages. Compared with a continuous water supply of 24 h d-1 (hours per day), adopting an intermittent water supply can reduce domestic water consumption. However, it presents risks in terms of hygiene behavior, particularly the frequency of face, hands, and feet washing, as well as water sharing among family members. Outdoor water consumption is more affected than indoor water consumption under slight supply restriction (=6 and¿1.5 and¿
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)853-865
JournalWater Resources Management
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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