Fungi of the genus Pleurotus, in particular, species Pleurotus ostreatus (common oyster mushroom) are among most cultivated fungi in the world. Due to intense rates of development of studies in this field, efficient breeding programs are highly required in the search for new P. ostreatus strains. The principal traits used worldwide for selecting strains are intensity of fruitbearing, fruit body cap color (for some consumptive markets), and mycelium growth rate. In this connection, the objective of this work was to study these quantitative traits and to find molecular markers, which could be employed to accomplish breeding programs. In general, we found 12 genomic loci (quantitative trait loci, QTLs) controlling mycelium growth rate of oyster and six QTLs responsible for the fruit body cap color. The genetic map of P. ostreatus was constructed, and all markers of quantitative traits found by us were located on this genetic map. The obtained linkage map can be a useful tool for the accomplishment of breeding programs to improve economically important traits of oyster mushroom.