Diversity and antimicrobial activity of vietnamese sponge-associated bacteria

Ton That Huu Dat*, Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc, Pham Viet Cuong, Hauke Smidt, Detmer Sipkema*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to assess the diversity and antimicrobial activity of cultivable bacteria associated with Vietnamese sponges. In total, 460 bacterial isolates were obtained from 18 marine sponges. Of these, 58.3% belonged to Proteobacteria, 16.5% to Actinobacteria, 18.0% to Firmicutes, and 7.2% to Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, isolated strains belonged to 55 genera, of which several genera, such as Bacillus, Pseudovibrio, Ruegeria, Vibrio, and Streptomyces, were the most predominant. Culture media influenced the cultivable bacterial composition, whereas, from different sponge species, similar cultivable bacteria were recovered. Interestingly, there was little overlap of bacterial composition associated with sponges when the taxa isolated were compared to cultivation-independent data. Subsequent antimicrobial assays showed that 90 isolated strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one of seven indicator microorganisms. From the culture broth of the isolated strain with the strongest activity (Bacillus sp. M1_CRV_171), four secondary metabolites were isolated and identified, including cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (1), macrolactin A (2), macrolactin H (3), and 15,17-epoxy-16-hydroxy macrolactin A (4). Of these, compounds 2-4 exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of reference microorganisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number353
JournalMarine Drugs
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2021


  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Cultivable bacteria
  • Secondary metabolites
  • Sponge-associated bacteria


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