Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

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Abstract

Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera arenaria, a root feeding-specialist that occurs in mobile dunes. The host plants of H. arenaria are buried regularly by windblown sand to which the plants respond by upward clonal expansion. As a consequence, the nematodes have to migrate upwards in the soil profile to find new roots for feeding and reproduction, however, not all juveniles migrate. We tested the hypothesis that the offspring from migrated individuals would perform better than from individuals that remained behind and discuss the advantage of this dualistic behavior. The individual performance of the cyst nematodes was better when their juveniles migrated to the new root layer. In the field, in the new root layer the cysts had more eggs and juveniles than cysts collected from the 1-year-old root layer. Under controlled conditions, cysts from the new root layer released their first juveniles faster than cysts from the 1-year-old root layer. However, the juveniles that do not migrate might be crucial for the persistence of the population. In the past decade in two extremely dry years, we could not find cysts in the new root layer. Apparently, summer drought constrains cyst formation, so that the cysts produced in the older root layers serve as a reservoir for the population. Such reservoirs could become more important when climate change will result in increased incidence of summer droughts
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-183
JournalApplied Soil Ecology
Volume34
Issue number2/3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

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Arenaria Plant
Heterodera
Plant Roots
cyst nematodes
cyst
dunes
reproductive success
nematode
rhizosphere
dune
Cysts
drought
Nematoda
Droughts
summer
plant parasitic nematodes
soil profiles
temporal variation
spatial variation
plant communities

Keywords

  • ammophila-arenaria
  • natural vegetation
  • feeding nematodes
  • insect herbivory
  • clonal grass
  • soil
  • glycines
  • colonization
  • diversity
  • community

Cite this

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title = "Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success",
abstract = "Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera arenaria, a root feeding-specialist that occurs in mobile dunes. The host plants of H. arenaria are buried regularly by windblown sand to which the plants respond by upward clonal expansion. As a consequence, the nematodes have to migrate upwards in the soil profile to find new roots for feeding and reproduction, however, not all juveniles migrate. We tested the hypothesis that the offspring from migrated individuals would perform better than from individuals that remained behind and discuss the advantage of this dualistic behavior. The individual performance of the cyst nematodes was better when their juveniles migrated to the new root layer. In the field, in the new root layer the cysts had more eggs and juveniles than cysts collected from the 1-year-old root layer. Under controlled conditions, cysts from the new root layer released their first juveniles faster than cysts from the 1-year-old root layer. However, the juveniles that do not migrate might be crucial for the persistence of the population. In the past decade in two extremely dry years, we could not find cysts in the new root layer. Apparently, summer drought constrains cyst formation, so that the cysts produced in the older root layers serve as a reservoir for the population. Such reservoirs could become more important when climate change will result in increased incidence of summer droughts",
keywords = "ammophila-arenaria, natural vegetation, feeding nematodes, insect herbivory, clonal grass, soil, glycines, colonization, diversity, community",
author = "C.D. Stoel and {van der Putten}, W.H.",
year = "2006",
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language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

AU - Stoel, C.D.

AU - van der Putten, W.H.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera arenaria, a root feeding-specialist that occurs in mobile dunes. The host plants of H. arenaria are buried regularly by windblown sand to which the plants respond by upward clonal expansion. As a consequence, the nematodes have to migrate upwards in the soil profile to find new roots for feeding and reproduction, however, not all juveniles migrate. We tested the hypothesis that the offspring from migrated individuals would perform better than from individuals that remained behind and discuss the advantage of this dualistic behavior. The individual performance of the cyst nematodes was better when their juveniles migrated to the new root layer. In the field, in the new root layer the cysts had more eggs and juveniles than cysts collected from the 1-year-old root layer. Under controlled conditions, cysts from the new root layer released their first juveniles faster than cysts from the 1-year-old root layer. However, the juveniles that do not migrate might be crucial for the persistence of the population. In the past decade in two extremely dry years, we could not find cysts in the new root layer. Apparently, summer drought constrains cyst formation, so that the cysts produced in the older root layers serve as a reservoir for the population. Such reservoirs could become more important when climate change will result in increased incidence of summer droughts

AB - Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera arenaria, a root feeding-specialist that occurs in mobile dunes. The host plants of H. arenaria are buried regularly by windblown sand to which the plants respond by upward clonal expansion. As a consequence, the nematodes have to migrate upwards in the soil profile to find new roots for feeding and reproduction, however, not all juveniles migrate. We tested the hypothesis that the offspring from migrated individuals would perform better than from individuals that remained behind and discuss the advantage of this dualistic behavior. The individual performance of the cyst nematodes was better when their juveniles migrated to the new root layer. In the field, in the new root layer the cysts had more eggs and juveniles than cysts collected from the 1-year-old root layer. Under controlled conditions, cysts from the new root layer released their first juveniles faster than cysts from the 1-year-old root layer. However, the juveniles that do not migrate might be crucial for the persistence of the population. In the past decade in two extremely dry years, we could not find cysts in the new root layer. Apparently, summer drought constrains cyst formation, so that the cysts produced in the older root layers serve as a reservoir for the population. Such reservoirs could become more important when climate change will result in increased incidence of summer droughts

KW - ammophila-arenaria

KW - natural vegetation

KW - feeding nematodes

KW - insect herbivory

KW - clonal grass

KW - soil

KW - glycines

KW - colonization

KW - diversity

KW - community

U2 - 10.1016/j.apsoil.2006.02.007

DO - 10.1016/j.apsoil.2006.02.007

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 176

EP - 183

JO - Applied Soil Ecology

JF - Applied Soil Ecology

SN - 0929-1393

IS - 2/3

ER -