Disentangling critical success factors and principles of on-farm agricultural demonstration events

B. Elzen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The paper identifies, outlines, and categorises establishment and operational factors that contribute to successful agricultural on-farm demonstration.

Design/Methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review on demonstration activities and meta-analysis of 24 original case study reports from 12 European countries.

Findings: Based on a combination of deductive and inductive analysis, the success determinants are classified into nine critical success factors deemed important in designing an on-farm demonstration event (the ‘Nine Ps'): Purpose, Problem, Place, Personnel, Positioning, Programme, Process, Practicalities, Post-event engagement. Each factor (‘what') is framed in terms of success principles to provide a guide to its enactment (‘how').

Practical implications: The results of the analysis can serve as a practical decision-support tool for organisers and evaluators of on-farm demonstration events.

Theoretical implications: The paper broadens the perspective on the character, interlinkages, and relative importance of the factors underlying demonstration and their successful application within the agricultural knowledge and innovation system.

Originality/Value: The paper addresses the deficit of comprehensive empirical studies investigating on-farm demonstrations by offering a rich research-based analysis of the factors and principles underlying their successful implementation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-656
Number of pages19
JournalThe Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension
Issue number5
Early online date4 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Agriculture
  • critical success factors
  • Europe
  • learning
  • on-farm demonstration
  • success principles


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